Geographical determinants of Agriculture
Landform, climate, soil and irrigation are the factors that determine the growth of agriculture.
Tamil Nadu is a land of diverse landscape comprising of hills, plateaus and plains. Among them the plains are most suitable for agriculture. The plains with alluvial soil enhances agricultural productivity. Example: Plains of cauvery. Agriculture in the plateau is moderate and is poor on the hills.
Tamil Nadu is situated in the tropical zone, which is nearer to the equator. The state experiences a tropical climate. Hence, the temperature in Tamil Nadu is relatively high almost throughout the year. So, only the tropical crops are cultivated. Water is another limiting factor of agriculture. Northeast monsoon is the major source of rainfall for Tamil Nadu. Therefore, the major cropping season begins with this season. The rainfall in this season and the irrigation facilities affect agriculture to a large extent.
Soil is one of the most essential elements of agriculture. It provides essential minerals or nutrients for the growth of crops and vegetation. The regions of river valleys and the coastal plains are the most agriculturally productive regions of the state as they are covered with fertile alluvial soil.
Monsoon rainfall in the state is highly irregular. Further it is seasonal. Hence, irrigation becomes necessary for successful cultivation of crops in the state. In the dry regions, rain-fed crops are cultivated.
Types and regions of Agriculture Practices in Tamil Nadu
Subsistence intensive agriculture : Practiced all over Tamil Nadu with few exceptions
Plantation Agriculture : Hill slopes of Eastern and Western Ghats.
Mixed farming : Banks of River Cauvery and Thenpennai