VIII. Answer the following in a paragraph
1. Write about the plantation farming of Tamil Nadu.
Plantation crops are cultivated in large estates on hilly slopes. Tea, coffee, cashew, rubber and cinchona are the major plantation crops of Tamil Nadu.
• Tamil Nadu ranks second in the production of tea in India next to Assam.
• Tea plantations are found in the hills of the Nilgiris and Coimbatore.
• Tamil Nadu ranks second in the production of coffee in India next to Karnataka.
• Coffee plants are grown in the hills of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
• Yercaud, Kolli hills and Kodaikanal and other coffee producing areas.
• Coffee plants are also found in the hilly slopes of Dindigul, Madurai, Theni and Salem.
Rubber: Rubber plantations are found largely in Kanyakumari district.
Pepper: Pepper is cultivated on the slopes of Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Cashew: Cashew is cultivated largely in Cuddalore district.
2. Give an account on water resources of Tamil Nadu.
• Water is the precious gift of nature to mankind.
• Tamil Nadu is inhabited by 6% of India's population, but it has only 2.5% of India's water resources.
• Major uses of water include human/animal consumption, irrigation and industrial use.
• The state is heavily dependent on monsoon rains.
• Tamil Nadu gets 47% of rainfall from Northeast monsoon, 35% from Southwest monsoon, 14% in summer and 4% in winter.
Surface water Resources:
• It includes rivers, reservoirs and tanks.
• The total surface potential of the state is about 24,864 mcm.
• There are 17 major river basins, 81 reservoirs and about 41,262 tanks.
• Most of the surface water has already been tapped mainly for irrigation.
• 95% of the surface water has already been put into use.
• An area of 24 lakh hectares of land has been irrigated by surface water.
Ground Water Resources:
• It includes tube wells and open wells.
• The utilizable groundwater resource of the state is 22,423 mcm.
• The current level of utilization of water is about 60% of the available recharge, and the balance 40% is available for use.
3. Bring out the mineral distribution in Tamil Nadu.
Minerals like vermiculite, magnetite, dunite, rutile, garnet, molybdenum and ilmenite are available in Tamil Nadu.
• Neyveli has a large amount of lignite resources.
• Coal is available in Ramanathapuram.
• Oil and gas are found in the Cauvery basin.
• Iron deposits are found in Kanjamalai region in Salem district and Kalrayan Malai region of Tiruvannamalai district.
• Magnesite ore is available near Salem.
• Bauxite is found in Servarayan Hills, Kotagiri, Udagamandalam, Palani and Koltimaiai areas.
• Gypsum is found in Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi and Virudhunagar districts.
• Ilmenite and rutile are found in Kanyakumari.
• Limestone is available in Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dindigul, Kancheepuram, Karur, Madurai, Nagapattinam and Salem districts.
• Magnesite is obtained in Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Karur, Namakkal, Nilgiris, Salem and Tirunelveli districts.
• Feldspar, quartz, copper and lead are also found in some parts of Tamil Nadu.
4. State the densely populated regions of Tamil Nadu and account for its high density.
• Tamil Nadu ranks 12th among the Indian states in population density.
• Chennai is the densest district. There are 26,906 persons per sq. km. in Chennai.
• Kanyakumari, Tiruvallur, Kancheepuram, Madurai, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Salem, Vellore and Tiruchirappalli are the districts which have high density of population.
Causes for high density of population:
• Generally plains with suitable climate support a huge population.
• Coastal plains with mild temperature and good economic activities support huge population.
• Job opportunities in large towns and cities attract huge population.
• Regions which support agricultural activities attract huge population.
• Regions which have high concentration of industries attract huge population.
5. Explain the different modes of transport available in Tamil Nadu.
Roadways, railways, airways and waterways are the different modes of transport in Tamilnadu.
• Tamil Nadu has a total road length of 167,000 km, In which 60,628 km are maintained by State Highways Department.
• National Highways, State Highways, Corporation & Municipal Road, Panchayat Union Roads and Village Panchayat Roads are the various types of roads. NH44 is the longest highway in Tamil Nadu. It runs from Hosur to Kanyakumari.
• Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network. It is a part of Southern Railway. Its headquarters is at Chennai.
• The present Southern railway network covers a large area of India's southern peninsula.
• It covers the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry and a small portion of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
• Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network, a Mass Rapid Transport System (MRTS).
• Currently it is developing a Metro system. It has been in operation since May 2017.
• Tamil Nadu has four major international airports - Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Tiruchirappalli airports.
• There are domestic air ports at Tuticorin and Salem.
• Increasing industrial activity has led to increase in passenger traffic and freight movement.
• There are major ports in Chennai, Ennore and Thoothukudi.
• There is an intermediate port at Nagapattinam.
• There are also 15 minor ports.
• All the minor ports are managed by the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board, Chennai Port.
• Chennai port is the second principal port in India for handling containers.
6. Write about Road safety rules
Increase in road traffic, high speed of vehicles and violation of traffic rules are the causes of major accidents. So it is necessary for us to adhere to traffic rules.
The basic road safety rules are given below:
• Aware of the road signals
• Stop, look and cross
• Don't rush on roads
• Don't stretch hands while driving vehicles
• Listen and ensure whether a vehicle is approaching
• Cross roads in pedestrian crossings
• Never cross road at bands and stay safe in a moving vehide.