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Government is one of the essential elements of the State. It is the working agency of the State. The importance of the Government in modern times is highly felt. Attempts have been made from time to time to classify the various forms of Government.
Forms of Government -> 1.Dictatorial 2.Democratic
Democratic -> 1.Presidential 2.Parliamentary
Presidential -> 1.Unitary 2.Federal
Parliamentary -> 1.Unitary 2.Federal
The term dictator has been borrowed from ancient Rome.
Dictatorship is a form of government. Dictatorship is against democracy. While democracy upholds liberty, dictatorship suppresses liberty.
F.NEUMANN says 'By dictatorship, we understand the rule of a person, a group of persons who arrogate to themselves and monopolize power in the state, exercising it without restraint.'
Modern dictatorship rose as a reaction against democracy.
Modern dictatorship arose owing to the following causes:-
1. Victorious powers of World War I (1914-1918) like Britain and France were arrogant and treated defeated powers like Germany with disrespect.
2. During the inter-war period (1919-39) failure of democracy led to the spread of dictatorship.
The League of Nations could do nothing to save democracy, when Hitler 's Germany went on committing a series of aggressive acts, when Mussolini's Italy annexed Ethiopia, when Soviet Russia attacked East European countries and when Japan seized Manchuria from China.
1. Modern dictatorship is one man rule and authoritarian.
2. One party rule - Example: Communist Party - China
3. No individual freedom for people.
4. Wide gulf between dictator and people based on fear and force.
1. Dictators show a singleness of purpose resulting in efficiency and quick decisions.
2. Cost of administration is low.
3. Dictatorship implies one party, one leader and one programme. National unity and solidarity is the contribution of dictatorship.
1. Dictatorship is based on force and fear.
2. People have no rights.
3. Dictators use their energy to realize their selfish aims. The interest of the people will not be taken into consideration.
Dictators are for bringing about revolutionary changes.
Cuba under Castro, Italy under Mussolini, Germany under Hitler, China under Mao Tse-tung were examples of dictatorship.
In the dictatorship style of functioning the individual's personality was suppressed and all aspects of life were regimented. Strict supervision and control over human thought and action was the order. Public and private life of individuals were submitted to dictators.
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