Diagnosis of Pregnancy
Pregnancy is mainly diagnosed on the symptoms reported by the woman and signs elicited by a health care provider.
These signs and symptoms are divided in to three classifications; presumptive, probable, and positive.
· Early breast changes-increase in size, darkening of areola, Montgomery’s tubercles
· Amenorrhea-a women having regular cycle with out the use of hormonal contraceptives
· Morning sickness
· Bladder irritability like frequency of micturation
· Quickening -the date of the first fetal movement felt by the mother provides an indicator of pregnancy. A primigravid women feels it at 18-20 weeks the multi gravida at 14-16 weeks
Presence of HCG in
Visualization of fetus by
· Ultrasound 6 weeksof gestation
· X-ray after 12 weeks of gestation
Fetal heart sounds by
Fetal stethoscope or fetoscope (20th to 24th weeks of gestation)
Fetal movements by
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