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Chapter: Obstetric and Gynecological Nursing : Normal Pregnancy

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Diagnosis of Pregnancy

Pregnancy is mainly diagnosed on the symptoms reported by the woman and signs elicited by a health care provider.

Diagnosis of Pregnancy

 

Pregnancy is mainly diagnosed on the symptoms reported by the woman and signs elicited by a health care provider.

 

Signs and symptoms of pregnancy

 

These signs and symptoms are divided in to three classifications; presumptive, probable, and positive.

 

Possible (presumptive) signs

 

·        Early breast changes-increase in size, darkening of areola, Montgomery’s tubercles

 

·        Amenorrhea-a women having regular cycle with out the use of hormonal contraceptives

 

·        Morning sickness

 

·        Bladder irritability like frequency of micturation

 

·        Quickening -the date of the first fetal movement felt by the mother provides an indicator of pregnancy. A primigravid women feels it at 18-20 weeks the multi gravida at 14-16 weeks

 

Probable signs

 

Presence of HCG in

 

·        blood

 

·        urine

 

 

 

Uterine growth

 

Braxtonhicks contractions

 

Ballottement

 

 

Positive signs

 

Visualization of fetus by

 

·        Ultrasound 6 weeksof gestation

 

·        X-ray after 12 weeks of gestation

 

Fetal heart sounds by

 

Ultrasound

 

Fetal stethoscope or fetoscope (20th to 24th weeks of gestation)

 

Fetal movements by

 

·        Palpation

 

·        Visible

 

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