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VI. Answer the following in detail
1. Discuss the five cardinal principles of Confucius.
Five cardinal principles of Confucius Ethics.
• The superior man is not merely intelligent or scholarly, but his character should be exemplary.
• The superior man possesses intelligence, courage and goodwill.
• Though obedience is insisted, "when the command is wrong a son should resist his father and a minister should resist the prince."
• The ruler must govern the people impartially.
• Children should obey their parents and wife her husband.
• The ruler must appoint persons of character in the government.
• Wisdom grows from the family, and that the foundation of society is the disciplined individual in an. orderly family.
• There are three requisites for government
• Sufficiency of food
• Sufficiency of military equipment
• Confidence of the people in their ruler
• The government should work with an ideal. It has duties towards the people.
Confucianism is not religion : is a system of social and ethical philosophy.
2. Compare and contrast the principles of Jainism and Buddhism
Jainism and Buddhism
• Mahavira and Gautama Buddha left their palaces at the age of 30.
• Both the founders of Jainism and Buddhism did not prescribe killing as a religious rite.
• Celibacy, securing livelihood by alms and abstinence from holding property made both mahavira and Buddha much more acceptable.
• They lived a life of purity and exemplified simplicity and self - denial.
• They lived in the times of the famous kings of Magadha, Bimbisara and Ajatashatra.
• The Vaishyas turned to Buddhism and Jainism in their eagerness to improve their social status.
• Buddha and mahavira revolted against the existing practices of rites and rituals and proposed their ethical teachings.
• In course time, Jainism and Buddhism split into two branches.
• Mahavira left the police subjecting himself severe penance for 12 years
• Tri-ratnas the three principles.
• Five great vows for right action
• Leading a very austere life.
• Establishment of monestries.
• Spread only in India
• Lack of royal patronage
• Split into Digambaras and Svetambaras
• Buddha left the palace and want into the forest insearch of truth.
• Four grent Truths
• The Noble Eight - fold path to abtain the purest state of mind.
• No practice of austere penances
• Establishment of Sangha
• Spread in many parts of the world
• Got royal patronage
• Split into Hinayana and Mahayana.
• Prepare a case study of Asoka's Edicts.
• Enact a drama about the life and teachings of Buddha.
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