V. Answer the following briefly
1. Write about the Hinayana and Mahayana.
The Hinayana (Less Vehicle)
• The Hinayana was the original creed preched by Buddha.
• The followers regarded Buddha as Guru and did not worship him as God.
• They denied idol worship and continued with the people's language (Pali)
The Mahayana (Greater Vehicle)
• In Mahayana Buddha was worshipped as God.
• The followers made images and statues of Buddha and offered prayers and recited hymns.
• They wrote their religions books in Sanskrit.
2. Elaborate the term "Tri-ratnas".
• The three principles of Jainism is known as 'Tri-ratnas’.
• The three principles
Right faith (Belief in teachings and wisdom)
Right knowledge (Acceptance of no God)
Right action (observance of the five great vows)
3. What do you know of Ajatasatru?
• Continuing his father's policy of expansion through military conquests Ajatashatra murdered his father Bimbisara and ascended throne in 493 B.C.
• Rajagriha, Surrounded by five hills providing protection to the kingdom, was the capital city of Magadha. Ajatashatra strengthened the fort and also built a new fort at pateliglama on the Ganges.
• Served as the exchange centre for the local products, Pataliputra became the mauryan capital Ajatashatra died in 461 B.C.
4. What does the Edict of kalinga convey?
• Among the Ashokan edicts two were Kalinga edicts. In one of them he tells us his horror and sorrow over the deaths which the war caused.
• In another edict he makes it known that Ashoka would not tolerate any longer the death of even hundredth or thousandth part of the number killed in kalinga.
5. Highlight the steps taken by Ashoka to spread Buddhism.
• Became an ardent Buddhist, Ashoka issued edicts that were carved out in the rock. Animal sacrifice was forhidden. Hospitals were constructed for animals.
• He sent his son Mahendra and his daughter sangamitra to Ceylon to spread his message of Dharma.