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Chapter: Plant Biochemistry: A plant cell has three different genomes

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A plant cell has three different genomes

A plant cell contains three genomes: in the nucleus, the mitochondria and the plastids.

A plant cell has three different genomes

 

A plant cell contains three genomes: in the nucleus, the mitochondria and the plastids. Table 20.1 lists the size of the three genomes in three plant species and, in comparison, the two genomes in humans. The size of the genomes is given in base pairs (bp). As discussed, the genetic information of the mitochondria and plastids is located on one or sometimes several circular double strand (ds) DNA, with many copies present in each organelle. During cell division and organelle reproduction, these copies are distributed ran­ domly between the daughter organelles. Each cell contains a large number of plastids and mitochondria, which are also randomly distributed during cell division between both daughter cells. The genetic information of mitochon­ dria and plastids is predominantly maternally inherited from generation to generation, and the large number of inherited gene copies protects against mutations.




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