Multiple Relation Queries and JOIN Ordering
The algebraic transformation rules in Section 19.7.2 include a commutative rule and an associative rule for the join operation. With these rules, many equivalent join expressions can be produced. As a result, the number of alternative query trees grows very rapidly as the number of joins in a query increases. A query that joins n relations will often have n − 1 join operations, and hence can have a large number of different join orders. Estimating the cost of every possible join tree for a query with a large number of joins will require a substantial amount of time by the query opti-mizer. Hence, some pruning of the possible query trees is needed. Query optimizers typically limit the structure of a (join) query tree to that of left-deep (or right-deep) trees. A left-deep tree is a binary tree in which the right child of each nonleaf node is always a base relation. The optimizer would choose the particular left-deep tree with the lowest estimated cost. Two examples of left-deep trees are shown in Figure 19.7. (Note that the trees in Figure 19.5 are also left-deep trees.)
With left-deep trees, the right child is considered to be the inner relation when executing a nested-loop join, or the probing relation when executing a single-loop join. One advantage of left-deep (or right-deep) trees is that they are amenable to pipelining, as discussed in Section 19.6. For instance, consider the first left-deep tree in Figure 19.7 and assume that the join algorithm is the single-loop method; in this case, a disk page of tuples of the outer relation is used to probe the inner relation for
matching tuples. As resulting tuples (records) are produced from the join of R1 and R2, they can be used to probe R3 to locate their matching records for joining. Likewise, as resulting tuples are produced from this join, they could be used to probe R4. Another advantage of left-deep (or right-deep) trees is that having a base relation as one of the inputs of each join allows the optimizer to utilize any access paths on that relation that may be useful in executing the join.
If materialization is used instead of pipelining (see Sections 19.6 and 19.7.3), the join results could be materialized and stored as temporary relations. The key idea from the optimizer’s standpoint with respect to join ordering is to find an ordering that will reduce the size of the temporary results, since the temporary results (pipelined or materialized) are used by subsequent operators and hence affect the execution cost of those operators.
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