Environment, Ecosystems and Biodiversity
1. State the significance and scope of environmental education.
· By environmental studies, people will understand the concept of need of development without destruction of environment.
· To motivate the active participation in environmental protection and improvement.. · Environmental studies develop a concern and respect for the environment.
2. Give some important physical hazards and their health effects.
· Physical hazards are the substance (or) activities that threaten your physical safety.
· They will be present in most work places at one time or another; they can be detected through your senses of touch or sight.
3. Define environment and ecosystem.
Environment: It is defined as the sum of total of all the living and non-living things around us influencing one another.
Ecosystem: A group of organisms interacting among themselves and with environment for exchanging energy and matter is known as ecosystem.
4. Differentiate between a biome and an ecosystem.
A small ecosystem with in an ecosystem is called as biome.
A group of organisms interacting among themselves and with the environment for exchanging energy and matter is known as ecosystem.
5. Mention the abiotic components.
The non-living components of an ecosystem called abiotic components.
Examples: climate, soil, water, air, energy, nutrients, etc.
6. Define primary and secondary production.
Primary production: The primary function of all ecosystems is to absorb sunlight and manufacture of starch.
Secondary production: The secondary function of all ecosystems is distributing energy in the form of food to all consumers or the energy stored by the consumer.
7. What is the major significance of biodiversity?
· We depend on plants, micro-organisms, earth's animals for our food, medicine and industrial products.
· Biodiversity protects the fresh air, clean water and productive land.
8. What is ecological succession?
The progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of stable community in a particular area is called as ecological succession.
9. Define species diversity?
Species diversity is the diversity between different species. The sum of varieties of all the living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity.
10.India as Mega diversity nation – Account.
India is one among the 12mega-diversity countries in the world. It has 89,450 animal species accounting for 7.31% of the global faunal species and 47,000 plant species which accounts for 10.8% of the world floral species. The loss of biodiversity is about 33%.
11.Differentiate food chain and food web with suitable examples.
Food Chain : A food chain is a picture or model that shows the flow of energy from Autotrophs to a series of organisms in an environment. A food chain only follows just one path as animals find food.eg: A hawk eats a snake, which has eaten a frog, which has eaten a grasshopper, which has eaten grass.
Food web : A food web is several food chains connected together. A food web shows the many different paths plants and animals are connected. eg: A hawk might also eat a mouse, a squirrel, afrog or some other animal. The snake may eat a beetle, a caterpillar, or some other animal.And so on for all the other animals in the food chain..
12. Define Ecological succession.
"Ecological succession" is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. Within any community some species may become less abundant over some time interval, or they may even vanish from the ecosystem altogether. Similarly, over some time interval, other species within the community may become more abundant, or new species may even invade into the community from adjacent ecosystems. This observed change over time in what is living in a particular ecosystem is "ecological succession".
13. What are the threats to the Indian biodiversity?
Threats to Indian biodiversity- deforestation, destruction of wetlands, habitat fragmentation, raw material, production of drugs, illegal trade and developmental activities.
14. What do you understand by endangered species and endemic species?
Endangered and endemic species – Endemic - species which are found only in a particular region. species is said to be threatened or endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level. Unless it is protected and conserved it is in immediate danger of extinction.
15. Explain threatened and endangered species.
Threatened and endangered species. –species is said to be threatened or endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level. Unless it is protected and conserved it is in immediate danger of extinction.
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