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Chapter: Biology: Structural Organization and Acquaintance of Animals

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Toad: Nervous system

This nervous system of Toad requires a central coordinationarrangement to conduct different organs efficiently. The nervous system an endocrine or hormone system conducts controls and coordinates all the activities of the body of toad.

Nervous system: This nervous system of Toad requires a central coordinationarrangement to conduct different organs efficiently. The nervous system an endocrine or hormone system conducts controls and coordinates all the activities of the body of toad. The system through which the animal response to stimuli, maintains the connections of various organs, coordinates various activities and maintains relations with the environment is called the nervous system.

The nervous system of toad, can be divided into three main divisions based on the origin, structure, distribution and functions.

 

1.   Central nervous system

 

2.   Peripheral nervous system

 

3.   Autonomic nervous system

 

l. Central nervous system: The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

2. Peripheral nervous system: The periphery or lateral nerve originates fromthe lateral sides of the brain and spinal cord formed of ten pairs of cranial nerves and ten pairs of spinal nerves.

3. Autonomic nervous system: In the body of animals there is a kind of nervewhich is not directly- controlled by the central nervous system but control independently the activities of various organs. The autonomic Nervous system is formed with these nerves. This system is formed with a pair of sympathetic nerve cord with their branches.

 

Description of central nervous system: The central nervous system of toadformed of the brain and the spinal cord. The part of the central nervous system which is enclosed within the skull, is called the brain.

 

The brain of toad is elongated. The middle part is thick and two ends a n-arrow and bi-laterally syrumetrical. The brain is covered by two membrane The outer thick, hard, translucent and blood vessels enriched membrane called dura matter and the inner thin membrane is called pia matter. These two membranes together are called meninges. Meninges cover the brain and spinal cord protects them.

  


The brain is formed of neurons or nerve cells. One neuron is joined with the other neuron by the synapse and form the nervous tissue. The outer part of the brain is formed of grey matter i.e. nerve cell bodies. The white part towards its inner side is called the white matter. This part is formed of nerve fibres.

 

The brain and spinal cord of vertebrate animals are not solid. In its inner Part there are hollow cavities or brain ventricles. The brain cavities remain filled up with a kind of fluid.

 

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