The contribution of F.W.Taylor to scientific management
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915), developer of scientific management. Scientific management (also called Taylorism or the Taylor system) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, with the objective of improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and were first published in his monographs, Shop Management
(1905) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911). Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work. Its application is contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices.
Taylorism is a variation on the theme of efficiency; it is a late 19th and early 20th century instance of the larger recurring theme in human life of increasing efficiency, decreasing waste, and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing ideas of what matters. Thus it is a chapter in the larger narrative that also includes, for example, the folk wisdom of thrift, time and motion study, Fordism, and lean manufacturing. It overlapped considerably with the Efficiency Movement, which was the broader cultural echo of scientific management's impact on business managers specifically.
In management literature today, the greatest use of the concept of Taylorism is as a contrast to a new, improved way of doing business. In political and sociological terms, Taylorism can be seen as the division of labor pushed to its logical extreme, with a consequent de-skilling of the worker and dehumanisation of the workplace.
Shift in decision making from employees to managers
Develop a standard method for performing each job
Select workers with appropriate abilities for each job
Train workers in the standard method previously developed
Support workers by planning their work and eliminating interruptions
Provide wage incentives to workers for increased output
Scientific approach to business management and process improvement
Importance of compensation for performance
Began the careful study of tasks and jobs
Importance of selection criteria by management
Labor is defined and authority/responsibility is legitimised/official
Positions placed in hierarchy and under authority of higher level
Selection is based upon technical competence, training or experience
Actions and decisions are recorded to allow continuity and memory
Management is different from ownership of the organization
Managers follow rules/procedures to enable reliable/predictable behavior
Did not appreciate the social context of work and higher needs of workers.
Did not acknowledge variance among individuals.
Tended to regard workers as uninformed and ignored their ideas and suggestions.
Elements and Tools of Scientific Management
Separation of planning and doing
Scientific Selection and training of workers
of Scientific Management
Replacing rule of thumb with science
Harmony in group action
Development of workers