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· The foundation of European colonies in the wake of discovery of America and Britain’s triumph over other European powers in bringing 13 colonies under its direct control are described.
· The burdensome taxation and colonial exploitative policies of England, depriving the colonies of their autonomy and independence are discussed.
· The proclamation of the colonists ‘No Taxation without Representation’ prompting England to declare war against the colonies is explained.
· The import of tea against the protest of colonies triggered a revolt in Boston leading to the outbreak of American War of Independence.
· The important battles at Lexington, Bunker Hill and York Town between the Colonists and the British forces are highlighted.
· The Continental Congress Meet in 1774 and the adoption of the Declaration of American Rights, as well as the Second Continental Congress giving the command of the army to George Washington are detailed.
· The surrender of Lord Cornwallis who commanded the British forces and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, that recognized the independence of the United States of America, are elaborated.
· The outbreak of French Revolution in the wake of summoning of Estates General by Louis XVI is explored.
· The privileged life of the nobility and the clergy is contrasted with the wretched conditions of peasantry, artisans and other sections of commoners who formed the Third Estate.
· The political, economic, and social causes for the outbreak of French Revolution are examined.
· The role of French Philosophers in creating consciousness and inspiring the revolutionaries to revolt against the unpopular monarchy is highlighted.
· The Tennis Court Oath of members of the Third Estate followed by events like storming of the Bastille and the historic march of women to Versailles are explained.
· Abolition of monarchy and feudalism as well as the confiscation of Church property with the declaration of rights of the people and proclamation of republic, thereby ending the monarchical system, are detailed.
· National Convention and its reign of terror under the dictatorial regime of Robespierre, the leader of the Jacobins Party, leading to split among revolutionaries are elaborated.
· The National Convention turning against Robespierre and sending him to guillotine is related.
· Setting up of Directory followed by Consulate and grabbing of power by Napoleon Bonaparte who later declared himself the French monarch are summed up.
· Though the rise of Napoleon marked the end of the revolution, the revolutionary ideals of ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity’ continued to inspire many later political movements and laid the foundation for the emergence of liberal democracy in Europe and elsewhere.
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