Social Science : History
THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS
V. Answer the following questions briefly
1. Who were Puritans? Why did they leave England?
• Reformers who led a religious movement to reform the Church of England dispensing with the teachings and practices of Roman Catholic Church were known as Puritans.
• They attempted to reform the Church of England. Kings James I and Charles I could not tolerate this. They persecuted the Puritans and so they left England.
2. What do you know about the Quakers?
• Quakers were members of a Christian group called the Society Friends.
• They laid emphasis on the Holy sprit and rejected outward rites and ordained ministry.
• Quakers worked for peace and opposed war.
3. Point out the significance of "the Boston Tea Party".
• In 1773 a group of men disguised themselves as native Americans, boarded the cargo vessel and threw the tea overboard. This incident is known as 'the Boston Tea party'.
• It led to the war between the rebellious colonies and England.
4. Attempt an account of "September Massacres".
• In August 1792 the commune of Paris ordered an attack on the king's palace.
• So the king ordered his Swiss guards to shoot the attackers. But he was deposed and imprisoned.
• The people of Paris were angered by the actions of the Swiss guards. So they hunted down the supporters of monarchy under their leader Marat.
• In three days about 1500 suspected dissidents were put in prison.
• After a trial they were killed. This incident is known as, 'September massacres'.
5. Explain the composition of "Three Estates of France".
• The first estate : The clergy
• The second estate : The nobles.
• The third estate : The commons comprising lawyers, rich merchants, bankers, businessmen and landowners.
Of these, the third estate refused either to bow to the nobles or to obey the orders of the king.
6. Sketch the role of Lafayette in the French Revolution.
• Lafayette participated in the American war of independence. He came back to France with democratic ideals and played on active role in the French revolution.
• During the French Revolution he served the French National Guard as its commander.
• He penned the Declaration of the Rights of Men and the Citizen with the help of Jefferson.
7. What was the background for the storming of Bastille Prison?
• The king shut out the commoners and they assembled in the Tennis court.
• In order to evacuate them, the king tried to use force but his own soldiers refused to obey his orders.
• So he intrigated to get foreign regiments to shoot down his own people.
• This provoked the people to rise in revolt and they stormed the Bastille prison and set free all the prisoners.
8. What were the taxes the peasants had to pay in France on the eve of Revolution?
• Tithe (one tenth)
• Taille (land tax)
• Gabelle (salt tax)