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Effects, Types, Management | First Aid | Nursing - Shock | 11th Nursing : First Aid

Chapter: 11th Nursing : First Aid


Shock is a life- threatening condition in which not enough blood is reaching the vital organs in the body as a result of injury or illness.


Shock is a life- threatening condition in which not enough blood is reaching the vital organs in the body as a result of injury or illness.

Effects of shock

·           Early loss of consciousness

·           Failing heart output and insufficient oxygen to cells that are vital for survival.

·           Sustained lowered blood pressure

Types of Shock

Neurogenic Shock

From damage to the nervous system such as a severed spine or a brain injury.

Haemorrhagic Shock

Loss of blood due to wound and internal bleeding.

Respiratory Shock

Insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood due to inadequate breathing. 

Cardiogenic Shock

Cardiac muscle not pumping effectively due to injury or previous  heart attack.

Circulatory shock,

It is a life-threatening medical condition of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

Hypovolemic shock

Related to low bloodvolume from hemorrhage, internal bleeding, severe dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, uncontrolled diabetes, large areas of severely-burned skin, or extreme heat stress.


Loss of body fluids with a change in biochemical equilibrium

Septic Shock

Toxin causes pooling of blood in capillaries not enough blood available for tissues.

Anaphylactic Shock

Severe allergic reaction of the body to sensitization by a foreign protein caused by an allergic reaction to a food, drug, or venom. 

Traumatic shock

Brought on by either a traumatic physical injury such as being hit by a car or a mental/emotional blow such as seeing a loved one killed.

Insulin shock

Hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) reaction to an overdose of insulin, a skipped meal, or strenuous exercise.

Electric shock

Injuries caused when electric current passes through body.


a)       Immediately reassure and comfort the casuality.

b)       Normally the lower extremities should be elevated. This reduces the blood in the extremities and improves the blood supply to the heart.

c)        If there are indications of the head injuries, the head could be raised slightly to reduce pressure on the brain.

·           If there are breathing difficulties, the victim may be more comfortable with head and shoulders raised

·           Loosen the tight clothing to help the circulation and assist breathing.

·           Treat the cause of shock, stop bleeding, immobilize fracture.

·           If breathing and heart beat stop then;-

·           Establish the airway

·           Begin resuscitation immediately.

·           Keep patient in recovery position.

Follow DRSABCD and manage other severe injuries

D - Danger  Ensure the area is safe.

R -Response Check for response: ask their name, squeeze their shoulders.

S-Send for help

A – Airway Open patient’s mouth.

B-Breathing          Check for breathing: look, listen and feel.

C- CPR Start CPR: 30 chest compressions followed by 2 breaths.

D- Defibrillation

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