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Causes, Types | First Aid - Fracture | 11th Nursing : Chapter 9 : First Aid

Chapter: 11th Nursing : Chapter 9 : First Aid


A break or crack in a bone is called a fracture.


A break or crack in a bone is called a fracture.

A dislocation is where a bone has been displaced from its normal position at a joint. A fracture is when a bone has been broken.


Direct force:- A bone may break at the point where a heavy blow is received.

Indirect force:- a bone breaks away from the spot of application of force.

Types of Fracture

Simple fracture

This is the clean break or crack in the bone

Compound fracture

in this type of fracture the skin is torn by the broken bone which may protrude through the wound

Greenstick fracture

Is a break that happens on oneside of a bone. 

Comminuted fracture

This type of fracture produce multiple fragments

Impacted fracture

This type of fracture the ends of the broken bone driven in to each other.

What to look for – fractures


Pain at or near the site of injury.

Difficulty moving.

Movement in an unnatural direction.

A limb that looks shorter, twisted or bent.

A grating noise or feeling.

Loss of strength .

The aims of first aid for the fractures are:

1.        To prevent further damage

2.        To reduce pain and shock

3.        To make the patient feel comfortable

4.        To get medical aid as soon as possible.

If you suspect that someone has fractured a bone


·           Stop any bleeding .

·           Immobilize the injured part.

·           Apply ice pack wraped in a towel .

·           Treat for shock.


·           Do not force anyone to use a painful body part.

·           Do not straighten a misshapen bone.

·           Do not place ice/cold pack directly on skin.

·           Do not move victim if neck or spine injury is suspected, unless absolutely necessary.

·           Do not move until injury has been immobilized.

·           Do not remove shoes, boots, or clothes around a possible fracture.

·           Splinting is unnecessary if victim can give the broken bone sufficient support and immobility.

·           Do not splint a possible fractured bone if doing so causes pain.

·           Do not Massage the affected area


Dislocation of Joints

A joint is where two bones join or connect. A dislocated joint happens when bones are partly or completely pulled out of their normal position.

The most common joints that dislocate are the shoulder, knee, jaw, or joints in the thumbs or fingers.

Signs of Dislocated joints

The four signs of a dislocated joint are:

1.        Strong, sickening pain

2.        Not being able to move the joint

3.        Swelling and bruising around the joint

4.        Shortening, bending or deformity of the joint

First aid for dislocated joints

·           Advise them to stay still and help them to support their dislocated joint in the most comfortable position.

·           Stop the joint from moving using a bandage. For an arm injury, make a sling to support the arm. For a leg injury, use padding or broad-fold bandages..

·           Apply an ice pack. Ice can ease swelling and pain in and around the joint.

·           Once you’ve stopped the joint from moving, take or send the injured person to hospital.

·           Keep checking their breathing, pulse and level of response. Check the circulation beyond the bandages every ten minutes and loosen if necessary.


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