First aid for patients with Wound, Hemorrhage, and Shock
Any abnormal break in the skin or the body surface is known as a wound.
1. Penetrating wound-wound that breaks through the full thickness of skin.
2. Non-penetrating wound-wound does not break through the skin.
3. Miscellaneous wound
1. To stop the bleeding
2. To prevent infection
3. To prevent shock
Haemorrhage or bleeding is a flow of blood from an artery, vein or capillary accompanied an accident in which a wound, a fracture or damage to organs occurs.
Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina, or anus, or through a break in the skin.
a) arterial Bleeding-blood coming from Arteries ,bright red in colour, spurts.
b) Venous Bleeding-blood coming from veins, dark red in colour, flows steadily.
c) Capillary Bleeding. – blood from small blood vessels, oozes and most common.
· It occurs when body can no longer controls its temperature anymore and the body’s temperature increases to106 degree or higher within 10 to 15 minutes.
· It is caused by very high environment temperature or illness like malaria.
· Exposure to heat and humidity for long time
· Prolonged confinement in hot atmosphere.
· Consumption of alcohol.
· Move the causality to cold place and remove the clothing.
· If the casualty is conscious, then place him in half sitting position with head and shoulders supported.
· If the casualty is unconscious, then place in recovery position.
· Wrap the casualty in a wet sheet and keep it wet. Fan should be on.pour water all over the body. Colds ponging should be started
· Replace the body fluids. Give cold water to drink
· Apply ice cap with ice pieces over the head and neck.
· Cold water enema can be given
· If required, shift him to hospital.
Heat cramps, are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise. This can be caused by inadequate consumption of fluids or electrolytes.
Identify hen you have a heat cramp typically due to exercising or working in hot environments.
Stop the activity ein performed
Heat cramps are not something you “push through” during exercise. They are your body’s way of telling you that it needs a break.
Rest in a cool environment
Find a cooler spot in the shade or indoors and give yourself time to rest and cool down
The cramp is a response to dehydration and loss of electrolytes, so you should also drink lots of fluids while you rest. Dissolve a quarter or half teaspoon of regular table salt into one quart of water
Gently stretch the muscles that are cramping.