Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
CPR stands for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. It’s a life saving medi-cal procedure which is given to someone who is in cardiac arrest. It helps to pump blood around the person’s body when their heart can’t.
To carry out CPR a person presses up and down on the casualty’s chest (chest compressions) and gives them a series of rescue breaths to help save their life when they are in cardiac arrest.
CPR comprises the following 3 steps, performed in order:
· Chest compressions
CPR should be performed immediately on any person who has become unconscious and is found to be pulseless and absence of breathing.
· The only absolute contra indication to CPR is a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order or other advanced directive indicating a person’s desire to not be resuscitated in the event of cardiac arrest.
Step 1: Shake and shout
If the person appears unconscious tap or shake the shoulders ask loudly are you (ok)? No response call for help.
Step 2: Check for normal breathing and circulation
· Check if the person is breathing normally by looking for:
· regular chest movements listening for breathing
· feeling for breath on your cheek.
· Check if the person has circulation by placing the index and middle fingers on the neck to the side of wind pipe.
· If there is no pulse and breathing start chest compression and rescue breathing,
§ If the person is breathing normally, then put them in the recovery position
Step 3: Give 30 chest compressions
· Kneel next to the person.
· Place the heel of one hand in the centre of their chest. Place your other hand on top of the first. Interlock your fingers.
· With straight arms, use the heel of your hand to push the breastbone down firmly and smoothly, so that the chest is pressed down between 5–6 cm, and release.
· Do this at a rate of 100 to 120 chest compressions per minute – that’s around 2 per second.
· Give 30 chest compressions.
Step 4: Give two rescue breaths
· Open the airway Place one hand on the person’s forehead, gently tilt their head back, then lift their chin using two fingers of your other hand under their chin – when you do this you open their airway.
§ Take a normal breath, make a seal around their mouth and breathe out steadily.
§ The person’s chest should rise and fall. Keeping the person’s head back and the chin lifted, take your mouth away, take another normal breath, and give a second rescue breath. The two breaths should take no longer than five seconds.
Step 5: Repeat until an ambulance arrives
Repeat 30 compressions and two rescue breaths.
· Fractures of ribs or the sternum from chest compression.
· Gastric insufflations from excessive artificial respiration.