Route of Entry
To establish an infection, pathogen must first enter the host. Normal defense mechanisms and barriers (For example Skin,mucus,ciliatedepithelium,lysozyme) make it difficult for the pathogen to enter the body.
Sometimes these barriers are break through for example cut in the skin, wound, tumor, ulcer which provides portal of entry for the bacteria. Some bacterial pathogens have the means to overcome the barriers through various virulence factors and invade the body.
Certain bacteria are infective when introduced through optimal route. The various route of entry of pathogens, which are cut or abrasion or wound (skin), Ingestion, Inhalation, arthropod bite, sexual transmission and congenital transmission. These are already explained in the XI Standard text book. The various bacterial pathogens, its pathogenesis clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, control, prophylaxis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are discussed below.