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Chapter: Mechanical : Computer Aided Design : Fundamentals of Computer Graphics

Morphology of Design

Detailed examination of th e engineer’s actions as he/she identifies and solves the problem:



The consideration of the product life from its conception to retire ment.....

Anatomy of Design


Detailed examination of th e engineer’s actions as he/she identifies and solves the problem:



1.Needs Analysis


Creation begins by recognizing a need


O  Apparent fr om observation


O  Results of a detailed study


O  A specific s et of circumstances


Results in a primiti ve statement


O  Fact or opi nion


O  Does the ne ed exist and is it realistic?


O  Does it exis t now or will it exist in the future?


O  Is it a new need? (new material or physical principle)


Often depends on c ircumstances



Needs analysis once through the Anatomy provides a good star ting point for the Feasibility Study


2.  Feasibility Study



Designs can be futile unless satisfying the original need is feasible


At this stage, the product appears in abstract forms, but is they feasible???


Alternative solutions must be subjected to physical and economic analyses and be realizable from both


The Feasibility Study using analysis of several alternatives establishes the design concept as something which can be realised and accepted


Some examples.....


(i) A building must be comfortable to live in:


Heating, ventilation and air conditioning are required. Specify limits of temperature, humidity, velocity and fresh air constituency.


(ii) National fossil fuel supplies are low:


Alternative forms of energy supply are required. Specify amount and where they are needed, and any restrictions of space, time or pollution levels.


3.Preliminary Design


Main purpose is selection of the best possible solution from a choice of alternatives Make comparisons against given criteria & constraints

Must maintain an open mind; use your judgement.


4.Detailed design


Aim is to produce a complete set of working drawings which are then transmitted to the manufacturer


This stage of design is far less flexible than those previous


Design should now reflect all of the planning both for manufacture and consumption stages Construction/testing of various components may be required


Prototype building ....is it what was expected?




Here, the device or system is actually constructed, and planning for this should have been incorporated into the design


Knowledge of the capability of the machines is required, since it must be possible to build and assemble the components as specified


Special jigs, fixtures and even machines may be required


Planning is vital; including quality control hold points, methods of inspection, standards for comparison etc...

Timing of construction may be important eg. Climatics




Transportation of the ma nufactured article, complete or in subassem ly form must be anticipated in the design


Packaging, availability of vehicles, regulations for use of thoroughfares , shelf/component life, warehouse storage f acilities, special handling, environmental contr ol of temperature and humidity may need to be addressed



The product is now used by the consumer


If the design is effect, it w ill have met the need


The design may yet no t be complete; redesigns and modifications may be required depending on field trials or consumer feedback


May need to consider maintenance of components and supply of spare parts or subassemblies




The product will be discarded as its life cycle terminates


It may have become obsol ete whilst still serviceable and therefore the design may not have been fully economical


Disposal and recovery of u seful materials should have been included in the design Threats to safety should bee guarded against


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Mechanical : Computer Aided Design : Fundamentals of Computer Graphics : Morphology of Design |

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