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Programming and Data Structures - Sorting And Searching - Important Short Questions and Answers: Sorting and Searching

**1. What is meant by Sorting and
searching?**

Sorting and searching
are fundamentals operations in computer science. Sorting refers to the
operation of arranging data in some given order

Searching refers to the
operation of searching the particular record from the existing information

**2. What are the types of sorting
available in C?**

Insertion sort

Merge Sort

Quick Sort

Radix Sort

Heap Sort

Selection sort

Bubble sort

**3. Define Bubble sort.**

Bubble sort is the one
of the easiest sorting method. In this method each data item is compared with
its neighbor and if it is an descending sorting , then the bigger number is
moved to the top of all

The smaller numbers are
slowly moved to the bottom position, hence it is also called as the exchange
sort.

**3.Mention the various types of searching
techniques in C**

Linear search

Binary search

**5. What is linear search?**

In Linear Search the list is searched
sequentially and the position is returned if the key element to be searched is
available in the list, otherwise -1 is returned. The search in Linear Search
starts at the beginning of an array and move to the end, testing for a match at
each item.

**6. What is binary search?**

Binary search is
simpler and faster than linear search. Binary search the array to be searched
is divided into two parts, one of which is ignored as it will not contain the
required element

One essential condition
for the binary search is that the array which is to be searched, should be
arranged in order.

**7. Define merge sort?**

Merge sort is based on
divide and conquer method. It takes the list to be stored and divide it in half
to create two unsorted lists.

The
two unsorted lists are then sorted and merge to get a sorted list.

**8. Define insertion sort?**

Successive element in
the array to be sorted and inserted into its proper place with respect to the
other already sorted element. We start with second element and put it in its
correct place, so that the first and second elements of the array are in order.

**9. Define selection sort?**

It basically determines
the minimum or maximum of the lists and swaps it with the element at the index
where its supposed to be.

The process is repeated
such that the n^{th} minimum or maximum element is swapped with the
element at the n-1^{th} index of the list.

**10. What is the basic idea of shell
sort?**

Shell sort works by
comparing elements that are distant rather than adjacent elements in an array
or list where adjacent elements are compared.

Shell sort uses an
increment sequence. The increment size is reduced after each pass until
increment size is 1.

**11.
****What is the purpose of quick sort
and advantage? **

The purpose of
the quick sort is to move a data item in the correct direction, just enough for
to reach its final place in the array.

Quick sort
reduces unnecessary swaps and moves an item to a greater distance, in one move.

**12. Define quick sort?**

The quicksort algorithm
is fastest when the median of the array is chosen as the pivot value. That is
because the resulting partitions are of very similar size.

Each partition splits
itself in two and thus the base case is reached very quickly and it follow the
divide and conquer strategy.

**13. Advantage of quick sort?**

Quick sort reduces unnecessary swaps and moves an item to a greater distance, in one move.

**14. Define radix sort?**

Radix sort the elements
by processing its individual digits. Radix sort processing the digits either by
least significant digit(LSD) method or by most significant digit(MSD) method.

Radix sort is a clever
and intuitive little sorting algorithm, radix sort puts the elements in order
by comparing the digits of the numbers.

**15. List out the different types of
hashing functions?**

The different types of hashing functions
are,

The division
method

The mind
square method

The folding
method

Multiplicative
hashing

Digit analysis

**16.Define hashing?**

Search from that position for an empty
location

Use a second hash function.

Use that array location as the header of a
linked list of values that hash to this location

**17. Define hash table?**

All the large
collection of data are stored in a hash table. The size of the hash table is
usually fixed and it is bigger than the number of elements we are going to
store.

The load factor defines
the ration of the number of data to be stored to the size of the hash table

**18.
****What are the types of hashing? **

Static
hashing-In static hashing the process is carried out without the usage of an
index structure.

Dynamic
hashing- It allows dynamic allocation of buckets, i.e. according to the demand
of database the buckets can be allocated making this approach more efficient.

**19.
****Define Rehashing? **

Rehashing is technique
also called as double hashing used in hash tables to resolve hash collisions,
cases when two different values to be searched for produce the same hash key.

It
is a popular collision-resolution technique in open-addressed hash tables.

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