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Chapter: Civil : Environmental Engineering

Important Question And Answer: Conveyance System



1. What are vitrified clay pipes?


They are not generally used as pressure pipe for carrying because they are weak in tension. They are extensively used for carrying sewage and drainage at partial depth.


2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of RCC pipes? Advantages:


a.     They can resist excessive compressive load and do not collapse under normal vacuums.


b.       They are not corroded from inside by normal portable water. Disadvantages:


a.       By means of acid they are corroded.

b.      They cannot with stand very high pressure.


3. What are tube wells?

Tube wells which a long pipe or a tube is bored or drilled deep in to the ground.


4. What are the factors affecting per capita demand? The factors affecting per capita demand are, a.


Climatic condition.


b. Habit of people. c. Size of city.


d. Cost of water. e. Industry.


f. Pressure in water tank. g. Quantity of water.


h. System of sanitation. i. Supply of system.


5. What are the factors governing design period? The factors governing design period are,

a.     Design period should not exceed the life period of structure.


b.     If the funds are not in the sufficient the design period should has to be decreased.


c.      The rate of interest is less for the borrowing funds.

d.     The of population increases due to industries and commercial establishment.



6. What are the various methods of purification of water? The various methods of purification of water are, a.



b. Plain sedimentation.


c.  Sedimentation aided with coagulation. d. Filteration.


e.   Disinfection. f. Aeration.


g. softening.


h. Miscellaneous treatments such as fluoridation, recarbornation, liming, desalination.


7. Define detention period?


Detention period of settling tank may be defined as the average theoretical time required for the water to flow through tank length.


8. Define coagulation?

The process of addition and mixing the chemical is called coagulation.


9. Define filtration?  What are the 2 types of filter?


The process of passing the water through the beds of such granular materials is known as filtration.


The two types of filters are,

a.  Slow sand gravity filter.

b. Rapid sand gravity filter.


10. What is schmutzdecke or dirty skin?


The harmless compound so formed, generally form a layer on the top which is called schmutzdecke or dirty skin. The layer helps in absorbing and straining out the impurities.


11. Define uniform coefficient?


It is defined as the ratio of the sieve size in mm through which 60% of the samples of sand will pass, to the effective size of the sand.


12. Differentiate between slow and rapid sand filter with respect to

(a). Rate of filtration. (b). loss of head.




13. Define sterilization?


The chemical used in killing these bacteria are known as disinfectants and the process is known as disinfection or sterilization.


14. What is chloramine?


Chloramine is the disinfectant compounds which are formed by the reaction between ammonia and chlorine.


15. What is softening?


The reduction or removal of hardness from water is known as water softening.


16. What are the methods of removing permanent hardness? The methods removing permanent


hardness are, a. Lime soda process.


b. Base exchange process called zeolite process. c. Demineralization.


17. Define alkalinity?


It is defined as the quantity of ions in water that will react to neutralize the hydrogen ion. It will thus represent the ability of water to neutralize acid.


18. What is permutit?


The most common artificial zeolite is a white colored substance called permutit manufactured from feldspar, kaolin, clay, and soda.


19. How are aeration water carried out? Aeration water are carried out


as follows, a. By using spray nozzles.


b. By permitting water to trickle over the cascades. c. By air diffusion.


d. By using trickling beds.


20.        Define fluoridation?


The process of adding fluoride compounds in excess is called as the fluoridation.



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