IC FABRICATION AND CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION FOR LINEAR ICs
1. Integrated Circuits
An integrated circuit (IC) is a miniature, low cost electronic circuit consisting of active and passive components fabricated together on a single crystal of silicon. The active components are transistors and diodes and passive components are resistors and capacitors.
2. Advantages of integrated circuits:
Miniaturization and hence increased equipment density.
Cost reduction due to batch processing.
Increased system reliability due to the elimination of soldered joints.
Improved functional performance.
Increased operating speeds.
Reduction in power consumption
Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (bothanalog and digital on the same chip). Based upon above requirement two different IC technology namely Monolithic Technology and Hybrid Technology have been developed. In monolithic IC ,all circuit components ,both active and passive elements and their interconnections are manufactured into or on top of a single chip of silicon. In hybrid circuits, separate component parts are attached to a ceramic substrate and interconnected by means of either metallization pattern or wire bounds.
Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops,multiplexers,and other circuits in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allowshigh speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and micro controllers work using binary mathematics to process "one" and "zero" signals.
Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers,work by processing continuous signals. They perform functions like amplification, active filtering,demodulation, mixing, etc.Analog ICs ease the burden on circuit designers by having expertlydesigned analog circuits available instead of designing a difficult analog circuit from scratch.