Global fresh water : Industrialisation
Whether town or village, the main cause of water scarcity is industry. In the towns, the water supply has to satisfy both drinking and industrial uses of water. The increasing industrial units have always, for reasons of solvent, coolant and as a source resource for production, increased the demands. With the industrial demands increasing, there has been a short supply in the residential areas of the cities and towns. A particular reason for urban water deficits is that there is a limited opportunity for storing water in them. This is so because the cities are becoming entirely built-up areas, with no provision made for adequate storage construction. Where such constructions exist, the sources of supply have either become dry or brackish, necessitating the fetching of water from far off places. Such external sources are not protected and hence the water is not good quality.
At the global level, there is an increasing decline in water quality. It is difficult at the same time to make measurements and gather quality related data. This causes problem for determining the quantum of freshwater required for a given population. The national governments of the world countries have made efforts towards regulatory procedures and protection. Let us now turn to see how the water becomes contaminated and what are its causes.