The Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution are inspired by the Constitution of former USSR. In 1976, the Congress party set up the Sardar Swaran Singh Committee to make recommendations on fundamental duties. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added some responsibilities of citizens to our Constitution called the Fundamental Duties. This amendment added a new part, namely, Part IVA to the Constitution. This new part consists of only one Article that is Article 51A which for the first time specified a code of ten fundamental duties of the citizens.
a) To abide by the constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
b) To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired the national struggle for freedom
c) To uphold and protect the sovereignty,unity andintegrity of India
d) To defend thecountry andrender nationalservice whencalled upon to do so
e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women
f) To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture
g) To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures
h) To develop scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
i) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence
j) To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement
k) To provide opportunities for education to his child or ward between the age of six and fourteen years. (The 86th Constitutional Amendment Act, 2002 has also introduced the 11th Fundamental Duty under 51A(k) under which all citizens of India or parents shall provide opportunities for education to their children between age of 6 and 14 years)