President under Article 352 can declare emergency if he is satisfied that India’s
security is threatened due to war, external aggression or armed rebellion, or
if there is an imminent danger or threat. When a national emergency is declared
on the ground of war or external aggression it is known as external emergency.
On the other hand, when it is declared on the ground of armed rebellion it is
known as internal emergency. This type of emergency has been declared three
times so far: in 1962, 1971 and 1975.
Article 356, the President can declare an emergency in a state if the Governor
reports that a situation has arisen under which the government of a State
cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. The
continuance of such an emergency beyond one year is possible only if emergency
under Art. 352 are in operation or the Election Commission certifies that there
are difficulties in holding Assembly elections. Maximum duration of the
emergency can be three years. The State is governed by the Governor on behalf
of the President. For the first time, the President’s Rule was imposed in
Punjab in 1951.
360 authorises the President to declare financial emergency if he is satisfied
that the financial stability or credit of India or of any of its parts is in
danger. In this type of emergency, salaries and allowances of any class of
persons serving State or Union, including judges of the Supreme Court and High
Court can be reduced by an order of the President. This type of emergency has
not been declared in India so far.