Environmental Engineering: Introduction
Water is a chemical compound and may occur in a Liquid solid gaseous form. All these three Forms of water are extremely useful to man, full filling his basic necessities of life. No life can exist without water since water is as essential for life. It has been estimated of water is absolutely essential not only for survival of human being but also for animals, plants and all other living creatures further it is necessary that the water required for their needs must be safe in all respects and it should not contain unwanted impurities or harmful chemical compounds or bacteria?s in it therefore in order to ensure the availability of sufficient quantity of good quality water it becomes imperative in modern society to plan and build suitable water supply schemes which will provide potable (safe for drinking) water to the varies sections of community in accordance with then demands and requirements.
The provision of such a scheme shall ensure a constant and a reliable water supply to that section of the people for which it has been designed such a scheme shall not only help in supplying safe whole some water to the people for drinking cooking, bathing, washing, etc.., so as to keep the diseases away and there by promoting better health, but would also help and thus helping in maintaining better sanitation and beautification of surroundings. Besides promoting overall hygiene and public health it shall ensure a safety against fire by supplying sufficient quantity of water to extinguish it. The existence of such a water supply scheme shall further help in attracting industries and thereby helping in industrialization and modernization of the society and consequently reducing unemployment and ensuring better living standards such schemes shall therefore help in promoting health wealth and welfare of entire community as a whole.
Various important and pathogenic organisms (disease causing organisms) due to these diseases like typhoid Asiatic cholera Amoebiasisgiavdisis etc..may spread. These diseases are called WATER borne DISEASES and therefore it will be harmful to health.
The pathogenic organisms (pathogens) do not multiply in water like that in milk but they do survive i.e water may be considered as a carrier for bacteria and not multiplier thus the control of pathogens is possible by simple disinfection principles (process). (If we control the purity of H2O completely, the chances of outbreak water borne communicable diseases will be much less). Besides communicable diseases certain other diseases like goiter, dental flourosis and skeletal flourosis are attributable to chemical impurities present in water.
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