For facilitating in handling transporting and placing in positions pipes are manufactured in small lengths of 2-6m.

**CONVEYANCE OR TRANSMISSION OF
WATER**

**VARIOUS TYPES OF PRESSURE PIPES**

**Depending on the construction
material the pipes are of the following types**

i.
C.I pipes

ii.
Steel pipes

iii.
RCC pipes

iv.
Hume steel pipes

v.
Vitrified clay pipes

vi.
Asbestos cement pipes

vii.
Miscellaneous pipes such as wrought iron pipes, PVC
pipes.

**PIPE JOINTS**

For facilitating in handling transporting and placing in positions pipes
are manufactured in small lengths of 2-6m. These small pieces of pipes are then
joined together after placing in position, to make one continuous length of
pipe the design of these joints mainly depend on the pipe material, internal
pressures and the condition of support.

**VARIOUS
TYPES OF JOINTS** are

i.
Bell and spigot joint

ii.
Expansion joints

iii.
Flanged joint Mechanical joint

iv.
Mechanical joint

v.
Flexible joint

vi.
Screwed joint

vii.
Collar joint

**BELL AND SPIGOT JOINT**

**Design of pipes using monograms**

For the
known design discharge. The pipe dia are assumed in such a way that the
velocity of flow varies from 0.6 to 3m/sec smaller velocity is assumed for
pipes of smaller dia& larges velocity for pipes of larger dia. The loss of
head in the pipe is then cal using hydraulic formulas.

Out of
these formulas Hagen - William formula is more commonly used. The use of Hagen
Williams formula however involves trial & error sol & in order to avoid
this monogram of Hagen Williams formula has been developed. These are in all
four variably

1. Discharge
Q in m^{3}/min or lit/sec

2. Dia of
pipe in mm

3. Loss of
heat in m/1000m light of pipe

4. Velocity
of flow in m/sec

If out of
4 quantities any 2 are known. The other 2 can be found from the monogram. The
monogram should in fig is valid for a value of roughness co-eff. C_{4}
= 100. For any other value of C_{H} the head loss obtained from the
monogram is multiplied by the factor CH/100

**For example**

Let the flow rate he 10m^{3}/min & the dia of pipe he 400mm.
It is required to find the head for a pipe of 800 m length.

Mark a
point A corresponding to Q = 10m^{3}/min discharge line & point B
corresponding to dia = 400m the dia line from point A & B by means of
straight be prolong the line AB to cut the head loss line at per velocity line
at point D this we get head loss 1000m light = 7m

Hence the
head loss for 800m length = (800x7) /1000
the velocity of flow comes to the
1.38m/sec.

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