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Chapter: Environmental Engineering - Collection and conveyence of water

Various Types of Pressure Pipes and Joints

For facilitating in handling transporting and placing in positions pipes are manufactured in small lengths of 2-6m.

CONVEYANCE OR TRANSMISSION OF WATER

 

VARIOUS TYPES OF PRESSURE PIPES

 

Depending on the construction material the pipes are of the following types

i.                   C.I pipes

ii.                 Steel pipes

iii.              RCC pipes

iv.              Hume steel pipes

v.                 Vitrified clay pipes

vi.              Asbestos cement pipes

vii.            Miscellaneous pipes such as wrought iron pipes, PVC pipes.

 

PIPE JOINTS

 

For facilitating in handling transporting and placing in positions pipes are manufactured in small lengths of 2-6m. These small pieces of pipes are then joined together after placing in position, to make one continuous length of pipe the design of these joints mainly depend on the pipe material, internal pressures and the condition of support.

 

VARIOUS TYPES OF JOINTS     are

i.                   Bell and spigot joint

ii.                 Expansion joints

iii.              Flanged joint Mechanical joint

iv.              Mechanical joint

v.                 Flexible joint

vi.              Screwed joint

vii.            Collar joint

 

 

BELL AND SPIGOT JOINT

 

Design of pipes using monograms

 

For the known design discharge. The pipe dia are assumed in such a way that the velocity of flow varies from 0.6 to 3m/sec smaller velocity is assumed for pipes of smaller dia& larges velocity for pipes of larger dia. The loss of head in the pipe is then cal using hydraulic formulas.

 

Out of these formulas Hagen - William formula is more commonly used. The use of Hagen Williams formula however involves trial & error sol & in order to avoid this monogram of Hagen Williams formula has been developed. These are in all four variably

1.     Discharge Q in m3/min or lit/sec

2.     Dia of pipe in mm

3.     Loss of heat in m/1000m light of pipe

4.     Velocity of flow in m/sec

 

If out of 4 quantities any 2 are known. The other 2 can be found from the monogram. The monogram should in fig is valid for a value of roughness co-eff. C4 = 100. For any other value of CH the head loss obtained from the monogram is multiplied by the factor CH/100

 

For example

Let the flow rate he 10m3/min & the dia of pipe he 400mm. It is required to find the head for a pipe of 800 m length.

 

Mark a point A corresponding to Q = 10m3/min discharge line & point B corresponding to dia = 400m the dia line from point A & B by means of straight be prolong the line AB to cut the head loss line at per velocity line at point D this we get head loss 1000m light = 7m

 

Hence the head loss for 800m length = (800x7) /1000  the velocity of flow comes to the 1.38m/sec.

 

 

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