Design features of power and distribution type transformers:
1. Load on the transformer will be at or near the full load through out the period of operation. When the load is less, the transformer, which is in parallel with other transformers, may be put out of service.
2. Generally designed to achieve maximum efficiency at or near the full load. Therefore iron loss is made equal to full load copper loss by using a higher value of flux density. In other words, power transformers are generally designed for a higher value of flux density.
3. Necessity of voltage regulation does not arise .The voltage variation is obtained by the help of tap changers provided generally on the high voltage side. Generally Power transformers are deliberately designed for a higher value of leakage reactance, so that the short-circuit current, effect of mechanical force and hence the damage is less.
1. Load on the transformer does not remain constant but varies instant to instant over 24 hours a day
2. Generally designed for maximum efficiency at about half full load. In order that the all day efficiency is high, iron loss is made less by selecting a lesser value of flux density. In other words distribution transformers are generally designed for a lesser value of flux density. Since the distributed transformers are located in the vicinity of the load, voltage regulation is an important factor.
3. Generally the distribution transformers are not equipped with tap changers to maintain a constant voltage as it increases the cost, maintenance charges etc., Thus the distribution transformers are designed to have a low value of inherent regulation by keeping down the value of leakage reactance.