Dementia Due to Head Trauma
Head trauma is the leading cause of brain injury for children and young adults. It is estimated that more than 7 million head injuries and 500 000 hospital admissions related to the same cause occur in the USA annually. Traumatic head injuries result in concus-sions, contusions, or open head injuries, and the physical exami-nation often reveals such features as blood behind the tympanic membranes (Battleâ€™s sign), infraorbital ecchymosis and pupillary abnormalities. The psychiatric manifestations of an acute brain injury are generally classified as a delirium or amnestic disorder; however, head trauma-induced delirious states often merge into a chronic dementia.
A single head injury may result in a postconcussional syn-drome with resultant memory impairment, alterations in mood and personality, hyperacusis, headaches, easy fatigability, anxi-ety, belligerent behavior and dizziness. Alcohol abuse, postural hypotension and gait disturbances are often associated with head injuries that result in dementia.