Applications of Geographical Information Systems
Computers occupy a very significant place in GIS applications. GISs are implemented in different platforms of computers, but mostly DOS or UNIX platforms. Digital data as well as text data are used by these systems.
GISs are useful in resources assessment, resources planning, environmental assessments, economic plans and management plans. In the developing countries, land, soil, water, climate, vegetation, animals and population and the interactions among them are all related to planning, food production and food security. Several international organisations are concerned with growth, development, welfare and integration and they are engaged in developmental activities at the global, regional and local levels. All of these international organisations are now engaged in GIS applications which could help world development .integration and they are engaged in developmental activities at the global, regional and local levels. All of these international organisations are now engaged in GIS applications which could help world development .
In fact, the uses of the GISs are innumerable. For example, an agricultural scientist, by using the GIS, may determine exactly where a particular crop may be grown and (s)he may also assess the nature of soils in the areas suitable for such a crop. In this assessment, (s)he will use soil types, landforms, precipitation and a host of other data towards analysing possibilities for cropping the specific crop with mapping. (S)he may also determine suitable locations for cropping through overlaying maps of different aspects.
(S)he may overlay maps such as transport map, map of distribution of labour, map of distance to markets and the like and thus determine ' suitable areas'. Similarly, taking the effects of activities on environment, their impacts and the intensity of such impacts, the areas subjected to deterioration can be identified on maps (stresses on environment) and measures to prevent the deterioration may be suggested.
More important than all of these applications is the fact that the GISs
are being used not only in geography but also in other sciences and
technological departments. That the GISs are capable of assisting a wide range
of scientific studies is a matter of pride for all of us, who are students and
practitioners of geography today.