The Living World
9. Differentiate between probiotics and pathogenic bacteria
• It converts the milk in to curd (Eg.) Lactobaccilus
• It decomposes debris.
• By the action of fermentation vinegar is produced. (Eg.) Acetobacter
• It causes diseases in plants and animals
• Plant diseases: Tomato - bacterial species
• Animal diseases: Anthrax, Tuberculosis Pnemonia Tetanus
10. Why mule is sterile in nature?
The male donkey is crossed with female horse the mule can be produced. As the donkey is not crossed with its same species the off springs are sterile.
11. List any five salient features of the family Felidae
1) They have sharp claws to catch the prey and to eat.
2) They have cutting incisors and large sharp canines to cut the meat.
3) They are free living.
4) They come out at nights for searching prey.
5) They have strong built body.
6) They have sharp sensory organs. (Eg.) Hearing, Smell, Vision, Touch
7) It's weight may ranges from 2 kg to 300 kgs.
12. What is the role of Charles Darwin in relation to concept of species?
Charles Darwin has written the book "Origin of Species" in 1859. In this book he has explained the relationship between evolution and origin of species through natural selection.
13. Why elephants and other wild animals are entering into human living area?
1. For the construction of houses, dams and factories forests are destroyed. The area surface of forests is also getting reduced.
2. As the bull elephant is hunted for their tusks the cow elephant during breeding season enters in to the dwelling area of people.
14. What is the difference between a Zoo and wild life sanctuary?
i. They are formed artificially.
ii. Animals are in houses within enclosure.
iii. They are formed for the purpose of free time enjoyment of people.
i. It's a place of nature.
ii. Animals roam freely in their natural surrounding.
iii. They are not formed for the purpose of enjoyment.
15. Can we use recent molecular tools to identify and classify organisms?
1. The short genetic marker in a organism's DNA is used to identify the organism belonging to a particular species - For this molecular technique DNA bar-coding is used.
2. By DNA hybridization the degree of genetic similarity between pools of DNA sequences is measured.
3. To identify an individual from a sample of DNA by looking at unique patterns in their DNA DNA finger printing is used.
4. Difference in homologous DNA sequences that can be detected by the presence of fragments of different lengths after digestion of DNA samples is called Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms analysis (RFLP)
5. To amplify a specific gene on portion of gene by using polymerase chain reaction are used as taxonomical tools.
16. Explain the role of Latin and Greek names in Biology.
1. Before modern period of early modern period, learning is done in Greek and Latin.
2. Educated people (scientists) knew Greek and Latin.
3. Other's simply borrowed the coined words and terms of educated people or scientists.
4. Greek and Latin were the primary language taught everywhere uniquely it is the common language of Western Europe that too it is used and approved as the language of science.
5. Greek is more of language of science than Latin.
6. Plants and Animals had local popular names in many other languages. So a system is needed to be devised so that they were to be recognised everywhere universally.
7. When Carlous Linnaeus (1707 -1778) formulated his binomial system of naming plants he did it in Greek and Latin continued this practise and made it universally acceptable as binomial nomenclature.
8. ICBN and ICZN - Indian Code of Botanical and Zoological nomenclature specify that not only name and its description should be translated in Latin.