In this type, new plantlets are formed from vegetative (somatic) cells, buds or organs of plant. The vegetative part of plant (root, stem, leaf or bud) gets detached from the parent body and grows into an independent daughter plant. It has only mitotic division, no gametic fusion and daughter plants are genetically similar to the parent plant.
Vegetative reproduction may take place through
(i) Leaves: In Bryophyllum small plants grow at the leaf notches
(ii) Stems: In strawberry aerial weak stems touch the ground and give off adventitious roots and buds. When the connections with the parent plant is broken, the offspring beomes independent.
(iii) Root: Tuberous roots (Asparagus and Sweet potato) can be used for vegetative propagation.
(iv) Bulbils: In some plants the flower bud modifies into globose bulb which are called as bulbils, when these falls on the ground they grow into new plants. e.g. Agave.
Fragmentation: In filamentous algae, breaking of the filament into many fragments is called fragmentation. Each fragment having atleast one cell, may give rise to a new filament of the algae by cell division e.g. Spirogyra.
Fission: In this type the parent cell divides into two daughter cells and each cell develops into a new adult organism e.g. Amoeba.
Budding: Formation of a daughter individual from a small projection, the bud, arising on the parent body is called budding. e.g. Yeast.
Regeneration: The ability of the lost body parts of an individual organism to give rise to an whole new organism is called regeneration. It takes place by specialized mass of cells e.g Hydra and Planaria.