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Population Explosion and Family Planning
Population explosion defined as the sudden and rapid rise in the size of population, especially human population. Realizing the dangers inherent in population growth, the Government of India has taken several measures to check population growth and introduced family planning. India has been one of the first country in the world to launch the nation wide family planning programme in 1952.
Family planning is a way of living that is adopted voluntarily by couples on the basis of knowledge and responsible decisions to promote the health and welfare of the family group and society. The WHO (World Health Organisation) has also stressed the importance of family planning as global strategy health for all.
Contraception is one of the best birth control measures. A number of techniques or methods have been developed to prevent pregnancies in women. The devices used for contraception are called contraceptive devices . Common contraceptive methods used to prevent pregnancy are discussed here.
1. Barrier methods
2. Hormonal methods
3. Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs)
4. Surgical methods
This method prevents sperms from meeting the ovum. Its entry into the female reproductive tract is prevented by barrier.
a. Condom: Condom prevents deposition of sperms in the vagina. Condoms are made of thin rubber or latex sheath. Condom also protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STD) like syphilis, AIDS.
b. Diaphragm (Cervical cap): Vaginal diaphragm fitting into the vagina or a cervical cap fitting over the cervix. This prevents the entry of sperms into the uterus.
Hormonal preparations are in the form of pills or tablets (contraceptive pills). These hormones stop (interfere with ovulation) the release of egg from the ovary.
The intrauterine device (IUD) are contraceptive devices inserted into the uterus. There are two synthetic devices commonly used in India areLippe’s Loop and Copper-T made of copper and plastic (non irritant). This can remain for a period of 3 years. This reduces the sperm fertilizing capacity and prevents implantation. This also helps to give adequate time interval between pregnancies.
Surgical contraception or sterilization techniques are terminal methods to prevent any pregnancy. This procedure in males is vasectomy (ligation of vas deferens) and in females it is tubectomy (ligation of fallopian tube). These are methods of permanent birth control.
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