The transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of a flower is called as pollination
1. It results in fertilization which leads to the formation of fruits and seed.
2. New varieties of plants are formed through new combination of genes in case of cross pollination.
2. Cross pollination
Self-pollination is also known as autogamy. The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of same flower or another flower borne on the same plant is known as self-pollination. e.g. Hibiscus.
· Self-pollination is possible in certain bisexual flowers.
· Flowers do not depend on agents for pollination.
· There is no wastage of pollen grains.
· The seeds are less in numbers.
· The endosperm is minute. Therefore, the seeds produce weak plants.
· New varieties of plants cannot be produced
Cross-pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anthers of a flower to the stigma of a flower on another plant of the same species e.g. apples, grapes, plum, etc.
· The seeds produced as a result of cross pollination, develop and germinate properly and grow into better plants, i.e. cross pollination leads to the production of new varieties.
· More viable seeds are produced.
· Pollination may fail due to distance barrier.
· More wastage of pollen grains
· It may introduce some unwanted characters
· Flowers depend on the external agencies for pollination