Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a milestone document in the history of human rights. It was drafted by the representatives with different legal and cultural back grounds from all regions of the world. The Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10th December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217A) as a common standard of achievement of all people and all nations. The first time it sets out the fundamental human rights to be universally protected and the UDHR has been translated into many languages.
There are 30 articles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and it guarantees freedom of expression as well as civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights. These rights apply to all people, irrespective of their race, gender and nationality, as all people are born free and equal.
This general explanation of Human Rights by UDHR is not a legally binding document; however it has a political and moral importance and many of its guarantees have become standard norms today.
Social ,economic and cultural rights are integral part of the human rights law that developed due to the aftermath of World War II.
Social rights are necessary for full participation in the society. Economic rights guarantee every person to have conditions under which they are able to meet their needs. They are a part of a range of legal principles through which economic equality and freedom are preserved in a State. Cultural rights are human rights that aim at assuring the enjoyment of culture and its components in conditions of equality, human dignity and non-discrimination.
Civil and political rights protect an individual’s freedom from infringement by the government, social organizations and private individuals. These rights ensure one’s ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state.
The term ‘Civil rights’ refers to the basic rights afforded by laws of the government, to every person regardless of race, nationality, colour , gender, age, religion etc.,
Political rights exercised in the formation and administration of a government. They are given to the citizens by law. These rights give power to the citizens to participate either directly or indirectly in the administration.