Social Science : Civics
IV. Give short answers
1. What is Human Right?
The UNO defines Human rights as "The right inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion or any other status. Everyone is entitled to these rights without discrimination."
2. What are the fundamental Rights?
Fundamental rights are required for the all round development of a human being.
The fundamental rights are:
• Right to Equality
• Right to Freedom
• Right against Exploitation
• Right to freedom of Conscience and Religion
• Cultural and Educational Rights for minorities
• Right to Constitutional Remedies
3. What are the Child Rights defined by the UNO?
• Right to life
• Right to family environment
• Right to Education
• Right to benefit from social security
• Right against sexual exploitation
• Right against sale or trafficking
• Right against other forms of exploitation like Child labour.
4. Write a short note on the Right to Constitutional remedies.
• By this right, a person can adopt Constitutional means and approach a court if he is denied the Fundamental Rights.
• The court then issues orders which are called 'writs' to the government to restore the rights to the citizen.
• The Constitutional Remedies put to right anything which may be wrong in terms of the Constitution
• This right therefore protects and safeguards all other rights.
5. Define POCSO
POCSO Act - Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act
Salient features of POCSO Act:
• The Act defines a child as any person below eighteen years of ago to ensure the healthy, physical, emotional, intellectual and social development of the child.
• When the abuse is committed by a person in a position of trust or authority vis-a-vis the child, like a family member, neighbours or any other acquaintances.
• The statement of the child is to be recorded exactly as the child narrates.
• A child not to be called repeatedly to testify.
6. Why do children need special attention?
• Children are subjected to sale or trafficking for various reasons - economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, sexual abuse, drug trafficking and child labour.
• Children need special attention
• Because children …….. child labour.
7. What are the contributions to labourers by B.R. Ambedkar?
Women Labourers' Welfare and Ambedkar:
• Dr. B.R. Ambedkar framed many laws for women workers in India such as the Mines Maternity Benefit Act.
• Women Labour Welfare Fund.
• Women and Child Labour Protection Act.
• Maternity Benefit for women labour.
• Restoration of Ban on Employment of Women on Underground Work in Coal Mines.
8. 'All are equal before law'. But we have enacted a separate law for women - Justify.
• 'All are equal before law'. But work is mostly gender- specific.
• When girls get married early, they lose many privileges like childhood, happiness, availing education and a healthy life.
• So we have enacted a separate law for women.
9. Write about the Right against Exploitation.
• Right against exploitation is one of our fundamental rights.
• It is against the law to employ children below 14 years of age in mines, factories and other occupations.
• Neither the contractor nor an employer can force a worker to do a job against their well.
10. Differentiate: Fundamental Rights and Human Rights
1. The rights that a human being deserves to survive with respect and freedom.
2. Human rights include those rights which are basic to a real life and are absolute, i.e. it cannot be taken away
3. Human Rights are recognized at International level
1. The elemental rights of the citizens of a country which are listed in the constitution and enforceable under the law is known as Fundamental Rights
2. Fundamental Rights include only those rights which are basic to a normal life
3. Fundamental Rights are guaranteed under the constitution of the country