THEORY AND TECHNIQUE OF QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
The ‘technique of quantitative analysis’ is broadly based on the following three major heads, namely :
(a) Technique of Volumetric Analysis,
(b) Technique of Gravimetric Analysis, and
(c) Biomedical Analytical Chemistry.
Volumetric analysis essentially comprises of the most precise and accurate measurement of interacting solutions or reagents. It makes use of a number of graduated apparatus, such as : graduated (volumetric) flasks, burettes, pipettes and measuring cylinder of different capacities (volumes).
However, it is pertinent to mention here that quite a few techniques related to measurement of pharmaceutical substances and reagents involved is more or less common to both gravimetric and volumetric analysis. Besides, in gravimetric analysis, some more additional techniques play a vital role, namely : precipitation, filtration, washing of the precipitate and ignition of the precipitate.
Biomedical analytical chemistry happens to be one of the latest disciplines which essentially embraces the principles and techniques of both analytical chemistry and biochemistry. It has often been known as ‘clinical chemistry’. This particular aspect of analytical chemistry has gained significant cognizance in the recent past by virtue of certain important techniques being included very much within its scope of analysis, namely : colorimetric assays, enzymic assays, radioimmunoassays and automated methods of clinical analysis.
It is, however, important to mention here that certain other routine procedures also carried out in a clinical laboratory fall beyond the scope of biomedical analytical chemistry, narnely : microbiological assays, heamatological assays, serum analysis, urine analysis and assays of other body fluids.
It will be very much within the scope of this to discuss briefly the various important details, with specific examples wherever necessary, of volumetric analysis, gravimetric analysis and biomedical analytical chemistry