Pathogens: - The microorganisms able to cause disease. (disease-causing organisms is called as pathogens.)
Disease: - Any change from a state of health. The pathogens multiply and cause an alteration in normal tissues and manifest with signs and symptoms.
Normal Flora: - Collection of organisms that colonize an animal, human surfaces or in the body without causing disease.
Infection: - Growth of microorganism in the body.
Asymptomatic infection: - If the microorganism fails to cause severe injuries to cells or tissues and patient is symptom free from particularly disease.
Communicable disease: -
If the infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another. It is known as communicable disease or contagious disease.
Acute infection: - Any disease in which symptoms develop rapidly but last for only a short time.
Chronic disease: - An illness that develops slowly and is likely to continue as recur for long periods.
Disinfection: - It is a process by which pathogenic organisms are killed by physical and chemical agents.
Disinfectant: - It is a chemical substance, which kill the pathogenic organism Ex. Iodine, Phenol, Carbolic Acid.
Antiseptic: - It is a chemical substance which inhibit the growth of organism and do not kill the organism Ex-Lysol.
Detergent: - Any substance that reduce the surface tension of water.
Bacteriostatic:-It is a process of inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Ex. Freezing and drying.
Bactericide: It is a substance which kills bacteria.
Sepsis: - It is a term used for the presence of pathogenic organism.
Inflammation: A host response to tissue damage characterized by reddening, pain, heat, swelling.
Antigen: - Any substance (microorganism) that when introduced into the body which induce antibody formation and reacts only with its specific antibody.
Antibodies: - Antibodies are large glycoprotein molecule produced by the body in response to an antigen and capable of combining specifically with the antigen.
Antibodies are also called as immunoglobulin which are synthesized and secreted by plasma cells when an antigen enters the body to neutralize the antigen.
Types of Immunoglobulin Ig G, Ig A, Ig M, Ig D, Ig E
· IgA = Mostly in secretion (tears, saliva, milk)
· IgG = Crosses the placenta (mother to baby)
Sterilization: - is a process by which an article or surface or medium is free from Microorganism (vegetative, spore state)
Chemotherapy: - Treatment of a disease with chemical substance (sulfonamides).
Antibiotics: - An antimicrobial agent produced naturally by a bacterium (or) fungus.
e.g. – Ciprofloxacin Streptomycin by Streptomyces griseous.
Serum: A liquid remaining after blood plasma is clotted which contains immunoglobulin.
Local infection: - An infection that is localized within a particular part or a single organ. Proper care can control spread.
Systemic infection : An infection that affects the entire body. It can become fatal.