Industrial microbiology is a branch, of microbiology that deals with the study and uses of various microorganisms. The birth of industrial microbiology largely began with the studies of Pasteur on fermentation. Various products of both primary and secondary metabolites are produced by different microorganisms. Both primary and secondary screening is involved in the isolation of industrially important microorganisms. The isolated strains are modified for higher yield through various procedures (example) protoplastfusion.Thusstrainimprovement improves the fermentation efficiency. Fermentation is carried under a suitable parameters, in a controlled environment is called Fermentor. Fermentation process involves both cup stream processing and downstream processing. In cup stream processing, inoculum preparation scale up, preparation of medium and sterilization of media, are carried out.