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Chapter: Principles of Management : Organizing

Staffing: Recruitment and Selection

Staffing involves filling the positions needed in the organization structure by appointing competent and qualified persons for the job.



Staffing involves filling the positions needed in the organization structure by appointing competent and qualified persons for the job.


The staffing process encompasses man power planning, recruitment, selection, and training.

a) Manpower requirements:


Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. The primary function of man power planning is to analyze and evaluate the human resources available in the organization, and to determine how to obtain the kinds of personnel needed to staff positions ranging from assembly line workers to chief executives.


b) Recruitment:


Recruitment is the process of finding and attempting to attract job candidates who are capable of effectively filling job vacancies.


Job descriptions and job specifications are important in the recruiting process because they specify the nature of the job and the qualifications required of job candidates.

c) Selection:


Selecting a suitable candidate can be the biggest challenge for any organization. The success of an organization largely depends on its staff. Selection of the right candidate builds the foundation of any organization's success and helps in reducing turnovers.


d) Training and Development:


Training and Development is a planned effort to facilitate employee learning of job-related behaviors in order to improve employee performance. Experts sometimes distinguish between the terms “training” and “development”; “training” denotes efforts to increase employee skills on present jobs, while “development” refers to efforts oriented toward improvements relevant to future jobs. In practice, though, the distinction is often blurred (mainly because upgrading skills in present jobs usually improves performance in future jobs).




Recruitment is the process of finding and attempting to attract job candidates who are capable of effectively filling job vacancies. The recruitment process consists of the following steps


Identification of vacancy


Preparation of job description and job specification


Selection of sources


Advertising the vacancy


Managing the response


a) Identification of vacancy:


The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain:


     Posts to be filled


     Number of persons


     Duties to be performed


     Qualifications required



          Preparation of job description and job specification:


A job description is a list of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. It may often include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications or skills needed by the person in the job, or a salary range. A job specification describes the knowledge, skills, education, experience, and abilities you believe are essential to performing a particular job.


c) Selection of sources:


Every organization has the option of choosing the candidates for its recruitment processes from two kinds of sources: internal and external sources. The sources within the organization itself (like transfer of employees from one department to other, promotions) to fill a position are known as the internal sources of recruitment. Recruitment candidates from all the other sources (like outsourcing agencies etc.) are known as the external sources of the recruitment.


d) Advertising the vacancy:


After choosing the appropriate sources, the vacancy is communicated to the candidates by means of a suitable media such as television, radio, newspaper, internet, direct mail etc.


e) Managing the response:


After receiving an adequate number of responses from job seekers, the sieving process of the resumes begins. This is a very essential step of the recruitment selection process, because selecting the correct resumes that match the job profile, is very important. Naturally, it has to be done rather competently by a person who understands all the responsibilities associated with the designation in its entirety. Candidates with the given skill set are then chosen and further called for interview. Also, the applications of candidates that do not match the present nature of the position but may be considered for future requirements are filed separately and preserved.

The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process.






Job Analysis is the process of describing and recording aspects of jobs and specifying the skills and other requirements necessary to perform the job.


The outputs of job analysis are


Job description

Job specification

Job Description


A job description (JD) is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done. It describes what the job is all about, throwing light on job content, environment and conditions of employment. It is descriptive in nature and defines the purpose and scope of a job. The main purpose of writing a job description is to differentiate the job from other jobs and state its outer limits.




A job description usually covers the following information:


Job title: Tells about the job title, code number and the department where it is done.


Job summary: A brief write-up about what the job is all about.


Job activities: A description of the tasks done, facilities used, extent of supervisory help, etc.


Working conditions: The physical environment of job in terms of heat, light, noise and other hazards.


Social environment: Size of work group and interpersonal interactions required to do the job.


Job Specification


Job specification summarizes the human characteristics needed for satisfactory job completion. It tries to describe the key qualifications someone needs to perform the job successfully. It spells out the important attributes of a person in terms of education, experience, skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) to perform a particular job. The job specification is a logical outgrowth of a job description. For each job description, it is desirable to have a job specification. This helps the organization to find what kinds of persons are needed to take up specific jobs.




A job specification usually covers the following information:






Skill, Knowledge, Abilities


Work Orientation Factors






Selecting a suitable candidate can be the biggest challenge for any organisation. The success of an organization largely depends on its staff. Selection of the right candidate builds the foundation of any organization's success and helps in reducing turnovers.


Though there is no fool proof selection procedure that will ensure low turnover and high profits, the following steps generally make up the selection process-

a) Initial Screening


This is generally the starting point of any employee selection process. Initial Screening eliminates unqualified applicants and helps save time. Applications received from various sources are scrutinized and irrelevant ones are discarded.


b) Preliminary Interview

It is used to eliminate those candidates who do not meet the minimum eligibility criteria laid down by the organization. The skills, academic and family background, competencies and interests of the candidate are examined during preliminary interview. Preliminary interviews are less formalized and planned than the final interviews. The candidates are given a brief up about the company and the job profile; and it is also examined how much the candidate knows about the company. Preliminary interviews are also called screening interviews.


c) Filling Application Form


An candidate who passes the preliminary interview and is found to be eligible for the job is asked to fill in a formal application form. Such a form is designed in a way that it records the personal as well professional details of the candidates such as age, qualifications, reason for leaving previous job, experience, etc.


d) Personal Interview


Most employers believe that the personal interview is very important. It helps them in obtaining more information about the prospective employee. It also helps them in interacting with the candidate and judging his communication abilities, his ease of handling pressure etc. In some Companies, the selection process comprises only of the Interview.


e) References check


Most application forms include a section that requires prospective candidates to put down names of a few references. References can be classified into - former employer, former customers, business references, reputable persons. Such references are contacted to get a feedback on the person in question including his behaviour, skills, conduct etc.


f) Background Verification


A background check is a review of a person's commercial, criminal and (occasionally) financial records. Employers often perform background checks on employers or candidates for employment to confirm information given in a job application, verify a person's identity, or ensure that the individual does not have a history of criminal activity, etc., that could be an issue upon employment.


g) Final Interview


Final interview is a process in which a potential employee is evaluated by an employer for prospective employment in their organization. During this process, the employer hopes to determine whether or not the applicant is suitable for the job. Different types of tests are conducted to evaluate the capabilities of an applicant, his behaviour, special qualities etc. Separate tests are conducted for various types of jobs.


h) Physical Examination


If all goes well, then at this stage, a physical examination is conducted to make sure that the candidate has sound health and does not suffer from any serious ailment.


i) Job Offer


A candidate who clears all the steps is finally considered right for a particular job and is presented with the job offer. An applicant can be dropped at any given stage if considered unfit for the job.

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