SPAN OF CONTROL
Span of Control means the number of subordinates that can be managed efficiently and effectively by a superior in an organization. It suggests how the relations are designed between a superior and a subordinate in an organization.
Factors Affecting Span of control:
Capacity of Superior:
Different ability and capacity of leadership, communication affect management of subordinates.
Capacity of Subordinates:
Efficient and trained subordinates affects the degree of span of management.
Nature of Work:
Different types of work require different patterns of management.
Degree of Centralization or Decentralization:
Degree of centralization or decentralization affects the span of management by affecting the degree of involvement of the superior in decision making.
Degree of Planning:
Plans which can provide rules, procedures in doing the work higher would be the degree of span of management.
Pattern of communication, its means, and media affect the time requirement in managing subordinates and consequently span of management.
Use of Staff Assistance:
Use of Staff assistance in reducing the work load of managers enables them to manage more number of subordinates.
Supervision of others:
If subordinate receives supervision form several other personnel besides his direct supervisor. In such a case, the work load of direct superior is reduced and he can supervise more number of persons.
Span of control is of two types:
1. Narrow span of control: Narrow Span of control means a single manager or supervisor
oversees few subordinates. This gives rise to a tall organizational structure.
Close control of subordinates
Too much control
Many levels of management
Excessive distance between lowest level and highest level
Wide span of control: Wide span of control means a single manager or supervisor oversees a large number of subordinates. This gives rise to a flat organizational structure.
More Delegation of Authority
Development of Managers
Danger of superiors loss of control
Requirement of highly trained managerial personnel
Block in decision making