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Chapter: Principles of Management : Organizing

Career development

Career development not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the personality. Individuals not only mature regarding their potential capacities but also become better individuals.



Career development not only improves job performance but also brings about the growth of the personality. Individuals not only mature regarding their potential capacities but also become better individuals.


Purpose of development


Management development attempts to improve managerial performance by imparting




Changing attitudes


Increasing skills


The major objective of development is managerial effectiveness through a planned and a deliberate process of learning. This provides for a planned growth of managers to meet the future organizational needs.


Development Process:

The development process consists of the following steps


1. Setting Development Objectives:


It develops a framework from which executive need can be determined.


2. Ascertaining Development Needs:


It aims at organizational planning & forecast the present and future growth.


3. Determining Development Needs:


This consists of


Appraisal of present management talent


Management Manpower Inventory


The above two processes will determine the skill deficiencies that are relative to the future needs of the organization.


4. Conducting Development Programs:


It is carried out on the basis of needs of different individuals, differences in their attitudes and behavior, also their physical, intellectual and emotional qualities. Thus a comprehensive and well conceived program is prepared depending on the organizational needs and the time & cost involved.

5. Program Evaluation:


It is an attempt to assess the value of training in order to achieve organizational objectives.






Training is a process of learning a sequence of programmed behaviour. It improves the employee's performance on the current job and prepares them for an intended job.


Purpose of Training:


          To improve Productivity: Training leads to increased operational productivity and increased company profit.


         To improve Quality: Better trained workers are less likely to make operational mistakes.


           To improve Organizational Climate: Training leads to improved production and product quality which enhances financial incentives. This in turn increases the overall morale of the organization.


         To increase Health and Safety: Proper training prevents industrial accidents.


          Personal Growth: Training gives employees a wider awareness, an enlarged skill base and that leads to enhanced personal growth.


Steps in Training Process:

1) Identifying Training needs: A training program is designed to assist in providing solutions for specific operational problems or to improve performance of a trainee.


Organizational determination and Analysis: Allocation of resources that relate to organizational goal.

Operational Analysis: Determination of a specific employee behaviour required for a particular task.

            Man Analysis: Knowledge, attitude and skill one must possess for attainment of organizational objectives


         Getting ready for the job: The trainer has to be prepared for the job. And also who needs to be trained - the newcomer or the existing employee or the supervisory staff.


Preparation of the learner:


            Putting the learner at ease


            Stating the importance and ingredients of the job


            Creating interest


            Placing the learner as close to his normal working position


            Familiarizing him with the equipment, materials and trade terms


         Presentation of Operation and Knowledge: The trainer should clearly tell, show, illustrate and question in order to convey the new knowledge and operations. The trainee should be encouraged to ask questions in order to indicate that he really knows and understands the job.


         Performance Try out: The trainee is asked to go through the job several times. This gradually builds up his skill, speed and confidence.


         Follow-up: This evaluates the effectiveness of the entire training effort





Training methods can be broadly classified as on-the-job training and off-the-job taining


a) On-the-job training


On the job training occurs when workers pick up skills whilst working along side experienced workers at their place of work. For example this could be the actual assembly line or offices where the employee works. New workers may simply “shadow” or observe fellow employees to begin with and are often given instruction manuals or interactive training programmes to work through.


b) Off-the-job training


This occurs when workers are taken away from their place of work to be trained. This may take place at training agency or local college, although many larger firms also have their own training centres. Training can take the form of lectures or self-study and can be used to develop more general skills and knowledge that can be used in a variety of situations.


The various types of off-the-job training are


(i) Instructor presentation: The trainer orally presents new information to the trainees, usually through lecture. Instructor presentation may include classroom lecture, seminar, workshop, and the like.

          Group discussion: The trainer leads the group of trainees in discussing a topic.


            Demonstration: The trainer shows the correct steps for completing a task, or shows an example of a correctly completed task.


            Assigned reading: The trainer gives the trainees reading assignments that provide new information.


            Exercise: The trainer assigns problems to be solved either on paper or in real situations related to the topic of the training activity.


            Case study: The trainer gives the trainees information about a situation and directs them to come to a decision or solve a problem concerning the situation.


            Role play: Trainees act out a real-life situation in an instructional setting.


            Field visit and study tour: Trainees are given the opportunity to observe and interact with the problem being solved or skill being learned.


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