![if !IE]> <![endif]>
MONITORING AND CONTROL
1 Creating Framework
2 Collecting The Data
3 Visualizing Progress
4 Cost Monitoring
5 Earned Value
6 Prioritizing Monitoring
7 Getting Project Back To Target
8 Change Control
9 Managing Contracts
10 Types Of Contract
11 Stages In Contract Placement
12 Typical Terms Of A Contract
13 Contract Management
1. Creating framework
Project control cycle
Project steering committee
Reporting formal or informal
Tied to specific events
Review points or control points
Assess progress daily
2 Collecting data
Partial completion reporting
Activity Assessment Sheet:
3. Visualizing progress:
provides visual indication of activities which are not progressing in schedule
Ball charts -Shows whether or not targets have been met
Records and displays how the targets have changed throughout the duration of project
4. Cost monitoring:
Framing cumulative expenditure chart
Projected future costs
Computer-based planning tool
5. Earned value: Earned value analysis
Assigns a value to each task
BCWP-budgeted cost of work performed
The 0/100 technique
The 50/50 technique
The mile stone technique
The baseline budget
First stage in baseline budget
Specify overall system
Baseline budget calculation
Earned value tracking chart
Performance statistics from earned value chart
Performance ratios Schedule performance index SPI=BCWP/BCWS
Earned value charts with revised forecasts
Earned value analysis is a method of performance measurement. Earned value integrates cost, schedule and scope and can be used to forecast future performance and project completion dates. It allows projects to be managed better – on time, on budget.
Three quantities form the basis for cost performance measurement using Earned Value Management. They are
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) or Planned Value (PV)
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) or Earned Value (EV) and
Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) or Actual Cost (AC).
The above quantities are defined below.
Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS) or Planned Value (PV)
– The sum of budgets for all work packages scheduled to be accomplished within a given time period.
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP) or Earned Value (EV)
– The sum of budgets for completed work packages and completed portions of open work packages.
Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP) or Actual Cost (AC)
– The actual cost incurred in accomplishing the work performed within a given time period. For equitable comparison, ACWP is only recorded for the work performed to date against tasks for which a BCWP is also reported.
From these three quantities we can determine our total program budget as well as make a determination of schedule and cost performance and provide an estimated cost of the project at its completion. Additional terms are defined to record cost and schedule performance and program budget:
Schedule Variance (SV)
– The difference between the work actually performed (BCWP) and the work scheduled (BCWS). The schedule variance is calculated in terms of the difference in dollar value between the amount of work that should have been completed in a given time period and the work actually completed.
Cost Variance (CV)
– The difference between the planned cost of work performed (BCWP) and actual cost incurred for the work (ACWP). This is the actual dollar value by which a project is either overrunning or under running its estimated cost
Two Performance Ratios:
Cost Performance Index (CPI)
– The ratio of cost of work performed (BCWP) to actual cost (ACWP). CPI of 1.0 implies that the actual cost matches to the estimated cost. CPI greater than 1.0 indicates work is accomplished for less cost than what was planned or budgeted. CPI less than 1.0 indicates the project is facing cost overrun.
Schedule Performance Index (SPI)
– The ratio of work accomplished (BCWP) versus work planned (BCWS), for a specific time period. SPI indicates the rate at which the project is progressing.
Estimate at Completion (EAC)
– It is a forecast of most likely total project costs based on project performance and risk quantification. At the start of the project BAC and EAC will be equal. EAC will vary from BAC only when actual costs (ACWP) vary from the planned costs (BCWP).
Earned Value Management Formula:
6 Prioritizing monitoring
Critical path activities
Activities with no free float
Activities with less than a specified float
High risk activities
Activities using critical resources
7 Getting the project back to target:
Shortening the critical path
Altering the activity precedence requirements
Shorten critical path
Speed up non-critical path activities
Time/cost trade off
Reconsider the precedence requirements
Normal working practices
Subdivide to components
8 Change control:
A change in program specification
Change program design and then code
Change control procedures
The role of configuration librarian:
Identifying items that need to be subject to change control
Management of a central repository of the master copies of software and documentation
Administering change procedure.
Maintenance of access records
Typical change control process
One or more users might perceive the need for a change
User management decide that the change is valid and worthwhile and pass it to development management
A developer is assigned to assess the practicality and cost of making the change
Development management report back to user management on the cost of the change; user management decide whether to go ahead
One or more developers are authorized to make copies of components to be modified
Copies modified. After initial testing, a test version might be released to users for acceptance testing .
When users are satisfied then operational release authorized – master configuration items updated .
Change control and configuration management
– Set of procedures to ensure that changes made only after a consideration of the full impacts.
– Version control to ensure that all changes are properly recorded and managed – and so that knock-on effects on other projects can be identified.
9. Managing contracts:
Contract administration is the management of contracts made with customers, vendors, partners, or employees.The personnel involved in Contract Administration required to negotiate, support and manage effective contracts are expensive to train and retain. Contract management includes negotiating the terms and conditions in contracts and ensuring compliance with the terms and conditions, as well as documenting and agreeing on any changes or amendments that may arise during its implementation or execution. It can be summarized as the process of systematically and efficiently managing contract creation, execution, and analysis for the purpose of maximizing financial and operational performance and minimizing risk.
There may be occasions where what is agreed in a contract needs to be changed later on. A number of bases may be used to support a subsequent change, so that the whole contract remains enforceable under the new arrangement.
A change may be based on:
A mutual agreement of both parties to vary the contract, outside the framework of the existing contract. This would be an independent basis for changing the contract.
A unilateral decision to vary the contract, contemplated and allowed for by the existing contract. This would normally have notice periods for fairness and often the right of the other, especially in consumer contracts, to cease the contractual relationship. Be careful that any one-way imposition of change is contractually justified, otherwise it may be interpreted as a repudiation of the original contract, enabling the other party to terminate the contract and seek damages.
A bilateral decision to vary the contracting, within the variation or change control process outlined in the existing contract. These are often called change control provisions.
10 Types of contract
Completed software application
Customized off-the shelf
Fixed price contracts
Time and material contracts
Fixed price per delivered unit contracts
Fixed price contracts:
Known customer expenditure
Higher prices to allow for contingency
Difficulties in modifying
Upward pressure on the cost changes
Thread to system quality
Time and material contracts
Ease of changing requirements
Lack of price pressure
Lack of supplier
Fixed price per unit delivered contracts:
Fixed price per unit delivered contracts
Life cycle change
Difficulties with s/w size measurement
Based on contractor selection
11. Stages in contract placement
Sections in requirement document:
Draw up plan account to proposals
Opposed to off the shelf application
Mandatory requirements are identified
Value for money
12. Typical terms of a contract:
Forms of a agreement
Goods and services to be supplied
Services to be provided
Ownership of the software
Internal test plans
Very short warranty period
STAGES IN CONTRACT PLACEMENT AND TYPICAL TERMS OF A CONTRACT
Description of existing system and current environment
Future strategy or plans
System requirements -
– Mandatory/desirable features
– Functions in software, with necessary inputs and outputs
– Standards to be adhered to
– Other applications with which software is to be compatible
– Quality requirements e.g. response times
Additional information required from bidders
How are proposals to be evaluated?
Methods could include:
– reading proposals
– Site visits
– Practical tests
Invitation to tender (ITT)
Note that bidder is making an offer in response to ITT
Acceptance of offer creates a contract
Customer may need further information
Problem of different technical solutions to the same problem
Memoranda of agreement (MoA)
Customer asks for technical proposals
Technical proposals are examined and discussed
Agreed technical solution in MoA
Tenders are then requested from suppliers based in MoA
Tenders judged on price
Fee could be paid for technical proposals by customer
13. CONTRACT MANAGEMENT
Contracts should include agreement about how customer/supplier relationship is to be managed e.g.
– Decision points - could be linked to payment
– Quality reviews
– Changes to requirements
When work is completed, customer needs to carry out acceptance testing.
Contract may put a time limit to acceptance testing – customer must perform testing bf
• Part or all payment to the supplier should depend on acceptance testing
Acceptance criteria are defined as “the list of requirements that must be satisfied prior to the customer accepting delivery of the product”.
This document defines the acceptance process, the acceptance criteria, and the review/approval required for customer acceptance of the (Agency name) (project name) project deliverables.
The purpose of this document is to define a standardized Deliverable Review Process, which will provide a structured method to support the Agency Software Verification and Validation Plan (SVVP) to ensure that appropriate, correct, consistent, and complete deliverables are created for the project.
This document describes:
Goals of the review process;
Meeting participants, roles, and responsibilities;
Dispositions for the review meeting; and
Review exit criteria.
The primary goal of the Deliverable Review Process is to detect and remove deliverable defects as early as possible in the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process.
Secondary goals to be attained are:
Consistency with IEEE Std 1028-1997, Standard for Software Reviews;
Ensure correctness, completeness, consistency, and accuracy of deliverables and products for all life cycle activities within the development process;
Acceptance Process for Project Deliverables
The acceptance process for (Project Name) provides a roadmap for incremental acceptance by the customer of the software application and associated project deliverables at the following key milestones.
Project Phase Concept Complete
Phase Requirements Complete
Phase Design Complete
Phase Application Ready For Pilot
Phase Application Ready For Statewide Rollout
Acceptance Criteria for Milestones and Deliverables
The acceptance criteria in the table below define the conditions under which the PROJECT Business Sponsor(s), the PROJECT IS Sponsor, and the Project Manager agree that they will accept completion of the milestones and deliverables subject to these acceptance criteria.
Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.