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Public finance and Private finance - Fiscal Economics | Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail |

Chapter: 12th Economics : Fiscal Economics

Public finance and Private finance

Public finance deals with study of income, expenditure, borrowing and financial administration of the government.

Public finance and Private finance

Public finance deals with study of income, expenditure, borrowing and financial administration of the government. Private finance is the study of income, expenditure, borrowing and financial administration of individual or private companies. Both public and private finance are fundamentally similar in nature but different from each other on various operational aspects. The similarities and dissimilarities between public and private finance have been explained below.

 

1. Similarities

1. Rationality

Both public finance and private finance are based on rationality. Maximization of welfare and least cost factor combination underlie both.

2. Limit to borrowing

Both have to apply restraint with regard to borrowing. The Government also cannot live beyond its means. There is a limit to deficit financing by the state also.

3. Resource utilisation

Both the private and public sectors have limited resources at their disposal. So both attempt to make optimum use of resources.

4. Administration

The effectiveness of measures of the Government as well as private depends on the administrative machinery. If the administrative machinery is inefficient and corrupt it will result in wastages and losses.

 

2. Dissimilarities

1. Income and Expenditure adjustment

The government adjusts the income to the expenditure while individuals adjust their expenditure to the income. Private finance involves stitching coat according to cloth available whereas public finance decides the cloth according to the need for the coat.

2. Borrowing

The government can borrow from internal and external sources; it can borrow from the people by issuing bonds. However, an individual cannot borrow from himself.

3. Right to print currency

The government can print currency. This involves the creation, distribution and monitoring of currency. The private sector cannot create currency.

4. Present vs. future decisions

The public finance is more involved with future planning and making long-term decisions. These investments could include building of schools, hospitals and infrastructure. The private finance makes financial decisions on projects with a short term vision.

5. Objective

The public sector’s main objective is to provide social benefit in the economy. The private sector aims to maximize personal benefit i.e. Profit.

6. Coercion to get revenue

The sources of income of a private individual is relatively limited while those of the Government is wide. The Government can use its power and authority.

7. Ability to make huge and deliberate changes

The public finance has the ability to make big decisions on income. For example, it can effectively and deliberately adjust the revenue. But individuals cannot make such massive decisions.


Tags : Fiscal Economics Fiscal Economics
Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail


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