History of Finance Commission
Finance commission is a quasi-judicial body set up under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution. It was established in the year 1951, to define the fiscal relationship framework between the Centre and the state.
Finance Commission aims to reduce the fiscal imbalances between the centre and the states (Vertical imbalance) and also between the states (horizontal imbalance). It promotes inclusiveness.
A Finance Commission is set up once in every 5 years. It is normally constituted two years before the period. It is a temporary Body.
The 14th Finance Commission was set up in 2013. Its recommendations were valid for the period from 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2020.
The 15th Finance Commission has been set up in November 2017. Its recommendations will be implemented starting 1 April 2020.
Article 280 (3) speaks about the functions of the Finance Commission. The Article states that it shall be the duty of the Commission to make the recommendations to the President as to:
1. The distribution between the Union and the States of the net proceeds of taxes, which may be divided between them and the allocation among the states of the respective shares of such proceeds;
2. To determine the quantum of grants-in-aid to be given by the Centre to states [Article 275 (1)] and to evolve the principles governing the eligibility of the state for such grant-in-aid;
3. Any other matter referred to the Commission by the President of India in the interest of sound finance. Several issues like debt relief, financing of calamity relief of states, additional excise duties, etc. have been referred to the Commission invoking this clause.