Wheat grains are ovoid in shape rounded in both ends. Wheat proteins are rich in glutamic acid and low in tryptophan. Whole wheat is a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and iron. Wheat is also a good source of fibre. Wheat is consumed mostly in the form of flour obtained by milling the grain while a small quantity is converted into breakfast foods such as wheat flakes and puffed wheat.
Wheat is milled to produce flour which is used to make a variety of products including bread across the world. Wheat contains a protein called gluten which is necessary for the basic structure in forming the dough system for bread, rolls and other baked goods.
Many of the foods we consume on a daily basis such as bread, cookies, cakes, pies, pastries, cereals, crackers, pasta, flour tortillas and noodles are all made from wheat flour.
Products of wheat
Whole wheat flour: It contains the finely ground bran, germ and endosperm of the whole kernel. It is used in making chapathis, puris, whole wheat bread, etc.
Wheat bran: Wheat Bran is a concentrated source of insoluble fibre and provides health benefits.
Wheat germ: It is a great source of vegetable protein, along with fiber and healthy fats. It is also a good source of vitamin E, magnesium, thiamine, folate, potassium and phosphorus.
Wheat rava: Broken wheat or wheat rava is used in the making of upma, bisi bela bath, pongal, etc.
Wheat flakes: They are used as breakfast cereals. They are packed with dietary fibre and most varieties are fortified with numerous essential vitamins and minerals.
Maida: It is also known as refined flour. The bran and germ are separated in making white flour or maida. Maida bakes uniformly into a loaf of greater volume and it is more bland in taste and more easily digested. The more the refinement, the lesser the nutritional quality.
Semolina: It is coarsely ground endosperm and its chemical composition is similar to that of white flour.
Macaroni products: These products are also called pasta. These products include macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli and noodles