Presidential Form of Government
The Presidential Form Of Government is also known as non-responsible or non-parliamentary or fixed executive system of government basically built on the principle of separation of power, and is prevalent in USA, Brazil, Russia, Sri Lanka among others.
The American President is both the head of the State and the head of government. As the head of State, he occupies a ceremonial position. As the head of government, he leads the executive organ of government.
The President is elected by an electoral college for a fixed tenure of four years. He cannot be removed by the Congress except by impeachment for a grave unconstitutional act.
The President governs with the help of a cabinet or a smaller body called ‘Kitchen Cabinet’. It is only an advisory body and consists of non-elected departental secretaries. They are selected and appointed by him, are responsible only to him, and can be removed by him any time.
The President and his secretaries are not responsible to the Congress for their acts. They neither possess membership in the Congress nor attend its sessions.
The President cannot dissolve the House of Representatives—the lower house of the Congress.
The doctrine of separation of powers is the basis of the American presidential system. The legislative, executive and judicial powers of the government are separated and vested in the three independent organs of the government.
The report is devoted to the role and effectiveness of the state: what it should do, how it should do it, and how it can improve in a rapidly changing world. Governments with both centrally-planned and mixed economies are shrinking their market role because of failed state interventions.
This report takes an opposite stance: that state’s role in the institutional environment underlying the economy, that is, its ability to enforce a rule of law to underpin transactions, is vital to making government contribute more effectively to development. It argues against reducing government to a minimalist state, explaining that development requires an effective state that plays a facilitator role in encouraging and complementing the activities of private businesses and individuals.
The report presents a state reform framework strategy: First, focus the state’s activities to match its capabilities; and second, look for ways to improve the state’s capability by re-invigorating public institutions.
According to this report, five fundamental tasks are core of every government’s mission, without which sustainable, shared and poverty reducing development is impossible.
1. Establishing a foundation of law
2. Maintaining macroeconomic stability
3. Investing in basic social services and infrastructure
4. Protecting the vulnerable
5.Protecting the environment
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