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Preparation of Water
Water was first prepared in 1781 by an English scientist Henry Cavendish. He discovered hydrogen gas when active metals reacted with sulphuric acid. The hydrogen gas released was highly inflammable and burnt to form a colourless product called water.
Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2↑
2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
Water is also produced by the reduction of metal oxide by hydrogen, burning of hydrogen in air and burning of hydrocarbons in air. Respiration of plants and animals also releases water.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Water + Enegy
Henry Cavendish was a British philosopher, scientist, chemist, and physicist. Cavendish is noted for his discovery of hydrogen. He called it inflammable air. He mixed metals with strong acids and created hydrogen. He created carbon dioxide also by combining metals with strong bases.
Laboratory preparation of water
The apparatus used for the preparation of water in the laboratories is as shown in Figure 13. 2. In this method, pure hydrogen gas is passed through anhydrous calcium chloride to absorb water vapour, if present. Dry hydrogen coming out of the opening is burnt with sufficient supply of air. The burnt hydrogen gas forms droplets of water, when it comes in contact with the cold flask. Distilled water without any dissolved matter is obtained by this method.
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