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Chapter: Principles of Management : Directing

Motivation and Satisfaction

"Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalized goals within individuals. Motivation may be defined as those forces that cause people to behave in certain ways.






"Motivation" is a Latin word, meaning "to move". Human motives are internalized goals within individuals. Motivation may be defined as those forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Motivation encompasses all those pressures and influences that trigger, channel, and sustain human behavior. Most successful managers have learned to understand the concept of human motivation and are able to use that understanding to achieve higher standards of subordinate work performance.


According to Koontz and O'Donnell, "Motivation is a class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces".




Psychologists generally agree that all behavior is motivated, and that people have reasons for doing the things they do or for behaving in the manner that they do. Motivating is the work a manager performs to inspire, encourage and impel people to take required action.


The characteristics of motivation are given below:-



  Motivation is an Internal Feeling


Motivation is a psychological phenomenon which generates in the mind of an individual the feeling that he lacks certain things and needs those things. Motivation is a force within an individual that drives him to behave in a certain way.


  Motivation is Related to Needs


Needs are deficiencies which are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. In order to motivate a person, we have to understand his needs that call for satisfaction.


  Motivation Produces Goal-Directed Behaviour


Goals are anything which will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. An individual's behavior is directed towards a goal.

  Motivation can be either Positive or Negative


Positive or incentive motivation is generally based on reward. According to Flippo - "positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward".


Negative or fear motivation is based on force and fear. Fear causes persons to act in a certain way because they are afraid of the consequences if they don't.




A manager's primary task is to motivate others to perform the tasks of the organization. Therefore, the manager must find the keys to get subordinates to come to work regularly and on time, to work hard, and to make positive contributions towards the effective and efficient achievement of organizational objectives. Motivation is an effective instrument in the hands of a manager for inspiring the work force and creating confidence in it. By motivating the work force, management creates "will to work" which is necessary for the achievement of organizational goals. The various benefits of motivation are:-


            Motivation is one of the important elements in the directing process. By motivating the workers, a manager directs or guides the workers' actions in the desired direction for accomplishing the goals of the organization.


            Workers will tend to be as efficient as possible by improving upon their skills and knowledge so that they are able to contribute to the progress of the organization thereby increasing productivity.


            For performing any tasks, two things are necessary. They are: (a) ability to work and (b) willingness to work. Without willingness to work, ability to work is of no use. The willingness to work can be created only by motivation.


            Organizational effectiveness becomes, to some degree, a question of management's ability to motivate its employees, to direct at least a reasonable effort towards the goals of the organization.


            Motivation contributes to good industrial relations in the organization. When the workers are motivated, contented and disciplined, the frictions between the workers and the management will be reduced.


Motivation is the best remedy for resistance to changes. When changes are introduced in an organization, generally, there will be resistance from the workers. But if the workers of an organization are motivated, they will accept, introduce and implement the changes whole


heartily and help to keep the organization on the right track of progress.


            Motivation facilitates the maximum utilization of all factors of production, human, physical and financial resources and thereby contributes to higher production.


            Motivation promotes a sense of belonging among the workers. The workers feel that the enterprise belongs to them and the interest of the enterprise is their interests.


            Many organizations are now beginning to pay increasing attention to developing their employees as future resources upon which they can draw as they grow and develop.




Employee satisfaction (Job satisfaction) is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work. Many measures purport that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace.

Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in your organization, can also be a downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with your work environment.

Factors contributing to employee satisfaction include treating employees with respect, providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management within a success framework of goals, measurements, and expectations.

Employee satisfaction is often measured by anonymous employee satisfaction surveys administered periodically that gauge employee satisfaction in areas such as:






understanding of mission and vision,






communication, and


Coworker interaction.


The facets of employee satisfaction measured vary from company to company.


A second method used to measure employee satisfaction is meeting with small groups of employees and asking the same questions verbally. Depending on the culture of the company, either method can contribute knowledge about employee satisfaction to managers and employees.




It is the process of Work arrangement (or rearrangement) aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work.

Approaches to job design include:


            Job Enlargement: Job enlargement changes the jobs to include more and/or different tasks. Job enlargement should add interest to the work but may or may not give employees more responsibility.


            Job Rotation: Job rotation moves employees from one task to another. It distributes the group tasks among a number of employees.


            Job Enrichment: Job enrichment allows employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence when learning new tasks or to allow for greater participation and new opportunities.








If a manager wants to get work done by his employees, he may either hold out a promise of a reward (positive motivation) or he/she may install fear (negative motivation). Both these types are widely used by managements.


a) Positive Motivation:


This type of motivation is generally based on reward. A positive motivation involves the possibility of increased motive satisfaction. According to Flippo - "Positive motivation is a process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward". Incentive motivation is the "pull" mechanism. The receipt of awards, due recognition and praise for work-well done definitely lead to good team spirit, co-operation and a feeling of happiness.


Positive motivation include:-


Praise and credit for work done


Wages and Salaries




            A sincere interest in subordinates as individuals


            Delegation of authority and responsibility



          Negative Motivation:


This type of motivation is based on force and fear. Fear causes persons to act in a certain way because they fear the consequences. Negative motivation involves the possibility of decreased motive satisfaction. It is a "push" mechanism. The imposition of punishment frequently results in frustration among those punished, leading to the development of maladaptive behaviour. It also creates a hostile state of mind and an unfavourable attitude to the job. However, there is no management which has not used the negative motivation at some time or the other.

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