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Chapter: Principles of Management : Directing

Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management - Directing

Principles of Management - Directing - Important Short Questions and Answers: Principles of Management - Directing

63. What is meant by the term directing?


 Directing may be defined as the process of instructing, guiding and inspiring human factors in the organization objectives. It is not only issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates but also including process of guiding and inspiring them to work effectively.


          List down the human factors in managing? Multiplicity of roles.

Individuality. Personal dignity.


64. Define creativity.


Creativity is defined as the ability to produce new and useful ideas through the components in novel and non obvious ways. Creativity exists throughout the populations, largely independent of age, sex and education.

65. What is a SCAMPER tool?


SCAMPER is a checklist that helps us to think of changes. We can make to an existing product to create a new one. These changes can be used either as direct  suggestions or as starting points for lateral thinking.


66. What is meant by reframing matrix?


Reframing Matrix is a simple technique that helps to look at business problems from a number of different viewpoints. It expands the range of creative solutions that you can generate. The approach relies on the fact that different people with different experience approach problems in different ways.


          State the function of mind mapping tool?


This tool is similar to concept fan except looking one step back from main topic .A mindmap consists of a central word or concept with 5 to10 main ideas that relate to that word , similar to creating a spider-web.


          Mention the use of DO IT process for creativity?


DO IT is a process for creativity. Techniques explained earlier in this chapter focus on specific aspects of creative thinking. DO IT bundles them together introduce formal methods of problem definition and evaluation. These help you to get the best out of the creativity techniques. DO IT is an acronym that stands for:


D – Define problem

O – Open mind and apply creative techniques


I _ Identify best solution

T _ Transform


69. Differentiate innovation and invention. Innovation means the use of creative ideas.

Invention means really finding new things which are not already available.


70. How can be harmonizing objectives achieved? Mutual trust.

Cooperation and understanding.

Worker’s participation in management, and


Balancing the objectives of the organization with those of individuals.


71. Define “multiplicity of roles”.

Individuals are not only the productive factor in management’s plans. They are members of social system of many organizations.


72. What is meant by Brain storming?


Brainstorming is an excellent way of developing many creative solutions to a problem. It works by focusing on a problem, and then coming up with very many radical solutions to it. The essence of brainstorming is a creative conference, ideally of a to 8 to12 people meeting for less than an hour to develop a long listed without criticism on a backboard or newsprint as they are offered ; one visible idea leads to others. At the end of this session, participants are asked how the ideas could be combined or improve.


73. Define motivation

According to koontz O’Donnell, “Motivation is a general terms applying to the entire


class of drives, desires, needs wishes and similar forces that induce an individual or a group of people to work”


74. Names the steps involved in motivation process. Analysis of situation.


Preparing, selecting and applying a set of appropriate motivating tools. Follow up.


75. What are the types of motivation Positive motivation Negative motivation Extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation


76. What is job enrichment?


Job enrichment is therefore based on the assumptions that in order to motivate personnel, the job itself must provide opportunities achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth.


77. Define Leadership.


Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of others towards the accomplishment of goals in a given situation.


78. List out few leadership traits The Michigan studies


The Ohio state university studies The managerial grid


79. State House’s path- goal approach.


Leaders are effective because of the influence on the followers motivation, ability to perform and their satisfaction.


80. What is Laissez- faire?


Complete freedom is given to the subordinate so that they plan, motivate, control and otherwise be responsible for their own action.


81. What is communication?

Communication is the passing of information from one person to another person.


82. Name the various types of communication Downward communication Upward communication

Horizontal or Lateral communication


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